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Gene Review

ndh  -  NADH dehydrogenase

Escherichia coli UTI89

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Disease relevance of ndh

  • The ndh-binding protein (Nbp) regulates the ndh gene of Escherichia coli in response to growth phase and is identical to Fis [1].
  • The structure of the multifunctional NAD(P)H dehydrogenase type 1 (NDH-1) complexes from cyanobacteria was investigated by growing the wild type and specific ndh His-tag mutants of Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1 under different CO(2) conditions, followed by an electron microscopy (EM) analysis of their purified membrane protein complexes [2].
  • The NQO4 and NQO5 genes appear to code for the M(r) 48,000 and 21,000 polypeptides of the isolated Paracoccus NADH dehydrogenase complex [Yagi, T. (1986) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 250, 302-311] on the basis of amino acid analyses and N-terminal protein sequence analyses [3].
  • Regulatory Loop between Redox Sensing of the NADH/NAD+ Ratio by Rex (YdiH) and Oxidation of NADH by NADH Dehydrogenase Ndh in Bacillus subtilis [4].
  • Transcriptional control of the nuo operon which encodes the energy-conserving NADH dehydrogenase of Salmonella typhimurium [5].

High impact information on ndh


Chemical compound and disease context of ndh


Biological context of ndh

  • DNA fragments complementing ndh were isolated from both the EcoRI and HindIII hybrid plasmid pools [14].
  • The ndh gene regulates expression of the yjlC-ndh operon, as indicated by the fact that mutation in ndh causes a higher NADH/NAD(+) ratio [4].
  • NADH dehydrogenase-2 (NDH-2) from Escherichia coli respiratory chain is a membrane-bound cupric-reductase encoded by ndh gene [15].
  • FNR* repressed ndh gene expression both aerobically and anaerobically in vivo [16].
  • A mutant strain complemented with ndh gene almost recovered the parental phenotype for growing in copper limitation or excess [15].

Anatomical context of ndh


Associations of ndh with chemical compounds

  • Footprint studies indicated that FNR proteins lacking essential cysteine residues are impaired in their ability to protect FNR sites in the ndh promoter [22].
  • Here, we report that the respiratory system of a ndh deficient strain suffered a faster inactivation than that of the parental strain in the presence of tert-butyl hydroperoxide due to endogenous copper [15].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Inactivation of ndh and/or nuo gene leads to higher production of d-lactate, ethanol, formate and succinate in log phase [23].
  • D-lactate was the primary product in the ndh nuo adhE strain [23].
  • Strain carrying the ndh- allele were found to be unable to grow on mannitol and to grow very poorly on glucose unless the medium was supplemented with succinate, acetate or casamino acids [24].

Other interactions of ndh

  • The gene carrying the mutation (designated ndh) was located on the E. coli chromosome at about minute 23 and was shown to be cotransducible with the pyrC gene [24].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ndh


  1. The ndh-binding protein (Nbp) regulates the ndh gene of Escherichia coli in response to growth phase and is identical to Fis. Green, J., Anjum, M.F., Guest, J.R. Mol. Microbiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Structural characterization of NDH-1 complexes of Thermosynechococcus elongatus by single particle electron microscopy. Arteni, A.A., Zhang, P., Battchikova, N., Ogawa, T., Aro, E.M., Boekema, E.J. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Gene cluster of the energy-transducing NADH-quinone oxidoreductase of Paracoccus denitrificans: characterization of four structural gene products. Xu, X., Matsuno-Yagi, A., Yagi, T. Biochemistry (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Regulatory Loop between Redox Sensing of the NADH/NAD+ Ratio by Rex (YdiH) and Oxidation of NADH by NADH Dehydrogenase Ndh in Bacillus subtilis. Gyan, S., Shiohira, Y., Sato, I., Takeuchi, M., Sato, T. J. Bacteriol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Transcriptional control of the nuo operon which encodes the energy-conserving NADH dehydrogenase of Salmonella typhimurium. Archer, C.D., Elliott, T. J. Bacteriol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Ubiquinone-mediated coupling of NADH dehydrogenase to active transport in membrane vesicles from Escherichia coli. Stroobant, P., Kaback, H.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1975) [Pubmed]
  7. The identification of primary sites of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide formation in the aerobic respiratory chain and sulfite reductase complex of Escherichia coli. Messner, K.R., Imlay, J.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Alterations in the electron transfer chain in mutant strains of Escherichia coli lacking phosphatidylethanolamine. Mileykovskaya, E.I., Dowhan, W. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Speed versus efficiency in microbial growth and the role of parallel pathways. Helling, R.B. J. Bacteriol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. The NADH dehydrogenase of the respiratory chain of Escherichia coli. II. Kinetics of the purified enzyme and the effects of antibodies elicited against it on membrane-bound and free enzyme. Dancey, G.F., Shapiro, B.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1976) [Pubmed]
  11. H+/e- stoichiometry for NADH dehydrogenase I and dimethyl sulfoxide reductase in anaerobically grown Escherichia coli cells. Bogachev, A.V., Murtazina, R.A., Skulachev, V.P. J. Bacteriol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Requirement for the proton-pumping NADH dehydrogenase I of Escherichia coli in respiration of NADH to fumarate and its bioenergetic implications. Tran, Q.H., Bongaerts, J., Vlad, D., Unden, G. Eur. J. Biochem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Direct transfer of NADH from malate dehydrogenase to complex I in Escherichia coli. Amarneh, B., Vik, S.B. Cell Biochem. Biophys. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Amplification of the respiratory NADH dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli by gene cloning. Young, I.G., Jaworowski, A., Poulis, M.I. Gene (1978) [Pubmed]
  15. The Cu(II)-reductase NADH dehydrogenase-2 of Escherichia coli improves the bacterial growth in extreme copper concentrations and increases the resistance to the damage caused by copper and hydroperoxide. Rodríguez-Montelongo, L., Volentini, S.I., Farías, R.N., Massa, E.M., Rapisarda, V.A. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. FNR-dependent repression of ndh gene expression requires two upstream FNR-binding sites. Meng, W., Green, J., Guest, J.R. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Expression of the plastid ndhF gene product in photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic tissues of developing barley seedlings. Catalá, R., Sabater, B., Guéra, A. Plant Cell Physiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Metabolic sources of hydrogen peroxide in aerobically growing Escherichia coli. González-Flecha, B., Demple, B. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. The NADH dehydrogenase of the respiratory chain of Escherichia coli. I. Properties of the membrane-bound enzyme, its solubilization, and purification to near homogeneity. Dancey, G.F., Levine, A.E., Shapiro, B.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1976) [Pubmed]
  20. Alterations in membrane function in an Escherichia coli mutant tolerant to colicins Ia and Ib. Konisky, J. J. Bacteriol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  21. Phagocytosis of M. paratuberculosis fails to activate expression of NADH dehydrogenase and nucleolin-related protein in bovine macrophages. Tooker, B.C., Coussens, P.M. Immunol. Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Properties of FNR proteins substituted at each of the five cysteine residues. Green, J., Sharrocks, A.D., Green, B., Geisow, M., Guest, J.R. Mol. Microbiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. Enhancement of lactate and succinate formation in adhE or pta-ackA mutants of NADH dehydrogenase-deficient Escherichia coli. Yun, N.R., San, K.Y., Bennett, G.N. J. Appl. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Mutations affecting the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase complex of Escherichia coli. Young, I.G., Wallace, B.J. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1976) [Pubmed]
  25. Analysis of protein sequences and protein complexes by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. Belghazi, M., Bathany, K., Hountondji, C., Grandier-Vazeille, X., Manon, S., Schmitter, J.M. Proteomics (2001) [Pubmed]
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