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Gene Review

IL2  -  interleukin 2

Canis lupus familiaris

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Disease relevance of IL2


High impact information on IL2

  • In the present study, we introduced several mutations or deletions into the signal-anchor region of the chimeric proteins in which the amino-terminal regions of two forms of cytochrome P-450 were fused to the mature portion of interleukin 2 [5].
  • We identified a dog with large granular lymphocytic leukemia and cutaneous lymphoma that exhibited constitutive expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptors by the leukemic peripheral blood lymphocytes [2].
  • The leukemic cells phenotypically resembled natural killer (NK) cells, and their surface IL-2 receptors were functional, as determined by the capacity to bind human recombinant IL-2 with high-affinity resulting in the transduction of proliferation signals and in the development of lymphokine-activated killer cell activity [2].
  • Transforming growth factor-beta was inhibitory, but tamoxifen, interleukin-1 and interleukin-2 had no effect [6].
  • Phase I study of liposome-DNA complexes encoding the interleukin-2 gene in dogs with osteosarcoma lung metastases [4].

Chemical compound and disease context of IL2

  • No allergic reactions were associated with inhaled IL-2 liposome therapy [7].
  • An assay for the measurement of interleukin-1 (IL-1), based on its ability to induce interleukin-2 (IL-2) production by the EL-4 mouse thymoma line in the presence of the calcium ionophore A23187, was examined [8].

Biological context of IL2


Anatomical context of IL2

  • Interleukin 2 (IL2) is a lymphokine which stimulates the growth of T lymphocytes [13].
  • Translocation occurs only during translation, but wheat germ extracts translate IL2 mRNA whether microsomes are present or not [13].
  • Surprisingly, reticulocyte lysates do not readily translate IL2 mRNA, and strongly inhibit its translation in wheat germ extracts [13].
  • Although IL2 mRNA is translated into biologically active IL2 relatively efficiently in microinjected Xenopus laevis oocytes, it has been difficult to establish reproducible cell-free translation systems for this lymphokine [13].
  • In this paper, we show that a wheat germ extract will translate IL2 mRNA into biologically active murine IL2, most of which is translocated into dog pancreas microsomes when these are present [13].

Associations of IL2 with chemical compounds

  • IL-2 liposomes given at 0.5 x 10(6) BRMP units twice daily to dogs resulted in significantly increased BAL effector activation compared with IL-2 liposomes given at 1.0 x 10(6) BRMP units once daily (P = 0.018) and empty liposome controls (P = 0.016) [11].
  • Marked elevation was found of TNF, IFN-gamma, IL-2, and IL-2R in BALF obtained from the grafted lungs in group 1 and group 2 dogs [14].
  • Cyclosporine, known to interfere with IL-2 release and responses, completely blocked both ConA- and PMA-induced lymphocyte proliferation but did not interfere with ConA-triggered cluster formation [15].
  • The DTH response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and vaccine was heightened in beta-carotene-supplemented dogs. beta-Carotene feeding did not influence mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation or IL-2 production [16].
  • After completion of the initial course, patients were discharged from the hospital and continued on a modified regimen for outpatient therapy: IL-2, 2.0 to 2.1 x 10(6) JRU and 5-FU 250 mg twice weekly; MMC 4 mg once weekly [17].

Other interactions of IL2

  • Furthermore, the expression of interleukin- (IL-2), IL-12(p40), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), IL-10 and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) as well as inducible nitric oxid synthase (iNOS) mRNA was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) [10].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of IL2


  1. Local immunotherapy of spontaneous feline fibrosarcomas using recombinant poxviruses expressing interleukin 2 (IL2). Jourdier, T.M., Moste, C., Bonnet, M.C., Delisle, F., Tafani, J.P., Devauchelle, P., Tartaglia, J., Moingeon, P. Gene Ther. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Functional interleukin-2 receptors are expressed on natural killer-like leukemic cells from a dog with cutaneous lymphoma. Helfand, S.C., Modiano, J.F., Moore, P.F., Soergel, S.A., MacWilliams, P.S., Dubielzig, R.D., Hank, J.A., Gelfand, E.W., Sondel, P.M. Blood (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Phase I clinical trial with a human major histocompatibility complex nonrestricted cytotoxic T-cell line (TALL-104) in dogs with advanced tumors. Cesano, A., Visonneau, S., Jeglum, K.A., Owen, J., Wilkinson, K., Carner, K., Reese, L., Santoli, D. Cancer Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Phase I study of liposome-DNA complexes encoding the interleukin-2 gene in dogs with osteosarcoma lung metastases. Dow, S., Elmslie, R., Kurzman, I., MacEwen, G., Pericle, F., Liggitt, D. Hum. Gene Ther. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. The amino-terminal structures that determine topological orientation of cytochrome P-450 in microsomal membrane. Sato, T., Sakaguchi, M., Mihara, K., Omura, T. EMBO J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Screening for candidate hepatic growth factors by selective portal infusion after canine Eck's fistula. Francavilla, A., Starzl, T.E., Porter, K., Foglieni, C.S., Michalopoulos, G.K., Carrieri, G., Trejo, J., Azzarone, A., Barone, M., Zeng, Q.H. Hepatology (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Interleukin-2 liposome inhalation therapy is safe and effective for dogs with spontaneous pulmonary metastases. Khanna, C., Anderson, P.M., Hasz, D.E., Katsanis, E., Neville, M., Klausner, J.S. Cancer (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Techniques for assessing canine mononuclear phagocyte function as part of an immunotoxicologic evaluation. Thiem, P.A., Halper, L.K., Bloom, J.C. Int. J. Immunopharmacol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Cloning of the canine interleukin-2-encoding cDNA. Knapp, D.W., Williams, J.S., Andrisani, O.M. Gene (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. The regression of a canine Langerhans cell tumour is associated with increased expression of IL-2, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma and iNOS mRNA. Kaim, U., Moritz, A., Failing, K., Baumgärtner, W. Immunology (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Aerosol delivery of interleukin 2 liposomes is nontoxic and biologically effective: canine studies. Khanna, C., Hasz, D.E., Klausner, J.S., Anderson, P.M. Clin. Cancer Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Apoptosis in feline panleukopenia virus-infected lymphocytes. Ikeda, Y., Shinozuka, J., Miyazawa, T., Kurosawa, K., Izumiya, Y., Nishimura, Y., Nakamura, K., Cai, J., Fujita, K., Doi, K., Mikami, T. J. Virol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Translocation of murine interleukin 2 into microsomes during translation in a cell-free system. Harnish, D.G., Bleackley, R.C., Havele, C., Lobe, C.G., Paetkau, V. Mol. Immunol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  14. Significance of biochemical markers in early detection of canine lung allograft rejection. Chang, S.C., Hsu, H.K., Perng, R.P., Shiao, G.M., Lin, C.Y. Transplantation (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Cluster formation of canine dendritic cells and lymphocytes is calcium dependent and not inhibited by cyclosporine. Aprile, J., Gerhard-Miller, L., Deeg, H.J. Exp. Hematol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. Dietary beta-carotene stimulates cell-mediated and humoral immune response in dogs. Chew, B.P., Park, J.S., Wong, T.S., Kim, H.W., Weng, B.B., Byrne, K.M., Hayek, M.G., Reinhart, G.A. J. Nutr. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Hepatic arterial infusions of interleukin-2-based immunochemotherapy in the treatment of unresectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Okuno, K., Hirohata, T., Nakamura, K., Jinnai, H., Shigeoka, H., Koh, K., Shindo, K., Yasutomi, M. Clinical therapeutics. (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. FK-506--how much potential? Thomson, A.W. Immunol. Today (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. Cytokine interleukin-2, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon-gamma release after ischemia/reperfusion injury in a novel lung autograft animal model. Serrick, C., La Franchesca, S., Giaid, A., Shennib, H. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Evidence of intragraft interleukin-2-activated killer cells and allospecific cytolytic T lymphocytes in rejecting lung allografts. Norin, A.J., Kamholz, S.L. Transplantation (1989) [Pubmed]
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