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Gene Review

CCK  -  cholecystokinin

Gallus gallus

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Disease relevance of CCK

  • The CCK-8-triggered [Ca2+]i surge was abolished by pretreating the cells with the inhibitor of inositol phospholipid hydrolysis, neomycin (1.5 mM), the CCK antagonists proglumide (1 mM) and benzotript (1 mM), or pertussis toxin (50 ng/ml for 12 h) [1].
  • Cionin, a peptide showing similarities with cholecystokinin and gastrin has been shown to be expressed in the gut and neural ganglion of the protochordate Ciona intestinalis [2].
  • Fowls of broiler (meat-type) and layer strains, which have different absolute food requirements but similar relative (per kg body weight) requirements, did not differ in their feeding responses to injections of 1, 8 and 16 micrograms/kg CCK-8 [3].

Psychiatry related information on CCK


High impact information on CCK

  • These studies were designed to investigate the effects of the CCK C-terminal octapeptide (CCK-8) on the intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i), protein kinase-C (PKC) activity, and progesterone secretion in granulosa cells obtained from the two largest preovulatory follicles (F1 and F2) of hens [1].
  • Nerve fibers immunoreactive for cholecystokinin (CCK) have been observed in the rat ovary, but the function of this gut peptide in the ovary is not known [1].
  • Molecular cloning of a putative Ciona intestinalis cionin receptor, a new member of the CCK/gastrin receptor family [2].
  • Moreover, we found that the CioR cDNA and deduced amino acid sequences were found to correspond to the annotated CCK/gastrin-like receptor gene on Scaffold 117 (C. intestinalis draft genome project, Joint Genome Institute database; [2].
  • We found that trigeminal mesencephalic neurons are surprisingly heterogeneous in their cytochemical make-up, expressing, to varying degrees, substance P, cholecystokinin, carbonic anhydrase, calbindin D-28k, parvalbumin, and S-100 beta [4].

Biological context of CCK


Anatomical context of CCK

  • Our results indicate that CCK receptors present in chicken ileum behave similarly but not identically to the CCK-A receptor described in mammals [9].
  • Most of these CCK receptors are neurally located but a minor proportion is also present on smooth muscle [9].
  • As in mammals, CCK-4 shows high affinity for CCK receptors located in chicken brain and hypothalamus, and very low affinity for those located in peripheral structures [10].
  • Four-week old chicks were maintained in a thermoneutral environment of 23-24 degrees C. After food was removed for a 24 hr interval, CCK was infused in a volume of 10.0 microliters into the lateral cerebral ventricle (ICV) in doses ranging from 10-150 ng [11].
  • Two different peptides of the gastrin-CCK family are present in the chicken's gastrointestinal tract [12].

Associations of CCK with chemical compounds

  • Intraperitoneal L-365,260, a CCK-receptor antagonist with low affinity for the two CCK receptors described in the chicken, increases food intake [6].
  • Cholecystokinin octapeptides (CCK8's) have been purified from methanol extracts of 30 chinchilla and 50 chicken brains containing 9.3 nmol and 8.5 nmol of the peptides respectively [13].
  • At all time points, chicks fed the diet containing LCT had significantly lower plasma CCK concentrations than those fed MCT, and chicks fed glyceryl tricaprate had higher concentrations than those fed glyceryl tricaprylate [14].
  • The central effect of cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CCK), SQ 19,844 or sincalide, on the intake of food and water and on colonic temperature (Tc) was investigated using the broiler cockerel [11].
  • A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based cloning strategy was applied using: (1) an initial PCR with deoxyinosine-containing primers designed to target conserved regions in CCK receptors, followed by (2) rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), and (3) full-length PCR of the CCK-CHR cDNA [15].

Other interactions of CCK


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CCK

  • Immunoreactive CCK was concentrated on a DEAE trisacryl column and purification effected by two successive HPLC steps [13].
  • When vagotomy was performed, the 14 micrograms/kg dose of CCK suppressed feeding in sham-operated birds (p < 0.05) but not in vagotomized birds (p > 0.05) [21].
  • CCK (14 micrograms/kg) caused a reduction in feeding, and this effect was not blocked by pretreatment with intraperitoneal injection of MK-329 (32, 90, 180, and 360 micrograms/kg) [22].
  • 2. The results showed that both isolated soya protein and an amino acid mixture simulating the amino acid composition of the soya protein increased the release of CCK, though to a lesser extent with a delayed response in the former, when added to a protein-free diet [23].
  • 2. Plasma CCK level increased significantly at 30 min after feeding the diets: about 2.5 times the basal level in the control group and about 3 times the basal level in both of the experimental groups [24].


  1. The effect of cholecystokinin on intracellular Ca2+, membrane-associated protein kinase-C activity, and progesterone production in chicken granulosa cells. Morley, P., Wang, J., Vanderhyden, B.C., Chakravarthy, B., Durkin, J., Whitefield, J.F. Endocrinology (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Molecular cloning of a putative Ciona intestinalis cionin receptor, a new member of the CCK/gastrin receptor family. Nilsson, I.B., Svensson, S.P., Monstein, H.J. Gene (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Effects of food deprivation, strain, diet and age on feeding responses of fowls to intravenous injections of cholecystokinin. Savory, C.J., Gentle, M.J. Appetite. (1983) [Pubmed]
  4. Cytochemical characteristics of neurons in the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus of hatchling chicks. Scott, S.A., Dinowitz, S., Terhaar, K., Sherlock, D., Campbell, M.A., Levine, D. J. Comp. Neurol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Effects of cholecystokinin and gastrin on gastroduodenal motility and coordination in chickens. Martínez, V., Jiménez, M., Goñalons, E., Vergara, P. Life Sci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. CCK is involved in both peripheral and central mechanisms controlling food intake in chickens. Rodríguez-Sinovas, A., Fernández, E., Manteca, X., Fernández, A.G., Goñalons, E. Am. J. Physiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. L-364,718 and L-365,260, two CCK antagonists, have no affinity for central benzodiazepine binding sites in chickens. Rodríguez-Sinovas, A., Fernández, A.G., Goñalons, E. Life Sci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Molecular characterization and physiological regulation of a TATA-less gene encoding chicken gastrin. Wu, S.V., Walsh, J.H., Campbell, B.J., Dimaline, R. Eur. J. Biochem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Mechanisms mediating the effects of cholecystokinin on avian small intestine longitudinal smooth muscle. Martín, M.T., Fernández, E., Fernández, A.G., Goñalons, E. Regul. Pept. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Central and peripheral cholecystokinin receptors in chickens differ from those in mammals. Rodríguez-Sinovas, A., Fernández, A.G., Goñalons, E. Regul. Pept. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Eating, drinking and temperature responses to intracerebroventricular cholecystokinin in the chick. Denbow, D.M., Myers, R.D. Peptides (1982) [Pubmed]
  12. Immunohistochemical differentiation of gastrin and cholecystokinin in gastrointestinal tract of chickens. Martinez, V., Rodriguez-Membrilla, A., Jimenez, M., Goñalons, E., Vergara, P. Poult. Sci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Cholecystokinin octapeptides purified from chinchilla and chicken brains. Fan, Z.W., Eng, J., Miedel, M., Hulmes, J.D., Pan, Y.C., Yalow, R.S. Brain Res. Bull. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Medium-chain triacylglycerols enhance release of cholecystokinin in chicks. Mabayo, R.T., Furuse, M., Yang, S.I., Okumura, J. J. Nutr. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Molecular cloning of an unusual bicistronic cholecystokinin receptor mRNA expressed in chicken brain: a structural and functional expression study. Nilsson, I.B., Svensson, S.P., Monstein, H.J. Regul. Pept. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. The distribution and ontogeny of gastrin/CCK-, somatostatin- and neurotensin-immunoreactive cells in the gastrointestinal tract of the chicken. Alison, B.C. Histol. Histopathol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Ontogeny, distribution and amine/peptide colocalization of chromogranin A- and B-immunoreactive cells in the chicken gizzard and antrum. Salvi, E., Buffa, R., Renda, T.G. Anat. Embryol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Distribution of vasoactive intestinal peptide, bombesin, and gastrin-cholecystokinin like peptides in the avian intestinal tract and brain. Shulkes, A., Stephens, D., Hardy, K.J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C, Comp. Pharmacol. Toxicol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  19. Interactions between neuropeptide Y, cholecystokinin, galanin, and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-I in the chicken hypothalamus. D'Hondt, E., Eelen, M., Vandesande, F. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Immunohistochemical localization of serotonin, galanin, cholecystokinin, and methionine-enkephalin in adrenal medullary cells of the chicken. Ohmori, Y., Okada, Y., Watanabe, T. Tissue & cell. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Exogenous cholecystokinin octapeptide in broiler chickens: satiety, conditioned colour aversion, and vagal mediation. Covasa, M., Forbes, J.M. Physiol. Behav. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Effects of the CCK receptor antagonist MK-329 on food intake in broiler chickens. Covasa, M., Forbes, J.M. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Enhanced release of cholecystokinin by dietary amino acids in chicks (Gallus domesticus). Yang, S.I., Furuse, M., Muramatsu, T., Okumura, J. Comparative biochemistry and physiology. A, Comparative physiology. (1989) [Pubmed]
  24. Enhanced release of cholecystokinin in chickens fed diets high in phenylalanine or tyrosine. Furuse, M., Chol, Y.H., Yang, S.I., Kita, K., Okumura, J. Comparative biochemistry and physiology. A, Comparative physiology. (1991) [Pubmed]
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