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Gene Review

Acox1  -  acyl-CoA oxidase 1, palmitoyl

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: AOX, Acox, Palmitoyl-CoA oxidase, Peroxisomal acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1
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Disease relevance of Acox1


High impact information on Acox1


Chemical compound and disease context of Acox1

  • In the livers a hepatomegaly, an induction of cytochrome P-450 IVA1 and induction of the activity of palmitoyl-CoA oxidase and carnitine acetyl-CoA transferase was found to be 180%, 1080%, 1300% and 1700% of control values, respectively [10].
  • Dose-related increases in organ (liver and kidney) weight/body weight ratios, individual cell necrosis in the liver, and hepatic microsomal NADPH cytochrome c reductase and peroxisomal palmitoyl-CoA oxidase and catalase activities were found in both the dosed-fed and gavage groups [11].

Biological context of Acox1

  • BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) belong to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily and regulate many genes of the proteins involved in lipid metabolism, including peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) [12].
  • RESULTS: Employing the peroxisome proliferator-responsive enhancer of the rat AOX gene, we analysed the minimal sequence requirements for enhancer activity and PPARalpha/RXRalpha binding [12].
  • The administration of large doses of LT3 to normal rats decreased the peroxisomal ciprofibrate AOX enzyme induction with a marked concomitant decrease in the AOX mRNA level [13].
  • These results suggest that H2O2 generated by AOX overexpression in immortalized fibroblasts leads to apoptosis, and the extent and duration of H2O2 and possibly other DNA damaging reactive oxygen species generated by the overexpression of peroxisomal AOX can influence apoptosis and neoplastic transformation [4].
  • Therefore, alpha-linolenic perilla oil exerts a similar effect to fish oil in stimulating hepatic activity and gene expression of AOX by enriching long chain n-3 PUFA in hepatic membrane fraction, which can partly account for the reduction of postprandial triglyceridemia [14].

Anatomical context of Acox1


Associations of Acox1 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of Acox1

  • Enzyme measurements made on the livers of the treated rats showed that peroxisomal palmitoyl CoA oxidase activity was markedly increased over control whereas peroxisomal catalase activity was not [20].

Other interactions of Acox1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Acox1


  1. Properties of a fluorescent bezafibrate derivative (DNS-X). A new tool to study peroxisome proliferation and fatty acid beta-oxidation. Berlot, J.P., Lutz, T., Cherkaoui Malki, M., Nicolas-Frances, V., Jannin, B., Latruffe, N. Lipids (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Transfer of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate through rat milk and effects on milk composition and the mammary gland. Dostal, L.A., Weaver, R.P., Schwetz, B.A. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. Chronic toxicity of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in rats. David, R.M., Moore, M.R., Finney, D.C., Guest, D. Toxicol. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Implication of hydrogen peroxide generation and apoptosis in the neoplastic transformation of mouse fibroblasts overexpressing peroxisomal fatty acyl-CoA oxidase. Dadras, S.S., Thorgeirsson, S.S., Rao, M.S., Reddy, J.K. Int. J. Oncol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Effects of dioxane on cytochrome P450 enzymes in liver, kidney, lung and nasal mucosa of rat. Nannelli, A., De Rubertis, A., Longo, V., Gervasi, P.G. Arch. Toxicol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Peroxisome targeting signal of rat liver acyl-coenzyme A oxidase resides at the carboxy terminus. Miyazawa, S., Osumi, T., Hashimoto, T., Ohno, K., Miura, S., Fujiki, Y. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. L-lactate dehydrogenase A4- and A3B isoforms are bona fide peroxisomal enzymes in rat liver. Evidence for involvement in intraperoxisomal NADH reoxidation. Baumgart, E., Fahimi, H.D., Stich, A., Völkl, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Peroxisomal beta-oxidation. Purification of four novel 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenases from rat liver peroxisomes. Novikov, D.K., Vanhove, G.F., Carchon, H., Asselberghs, S., Eyssen, H.J., Van Veldhoven, P.P., Mannaerts, G.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Substrate specificities of rat liver peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidases: palmitoyl-CoA oxidase (inducible acyl-CoA oxidase), pristanoyl-CoA oxidase (non-inducible acyl-CoA oxidase), and trihydroxycoprostanoyl-CoA oxidase. Van Veldhoven, P.P., Vanhove, G., Assselberghs, S., Eyssen, H.J., Mannaerts, G.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Effect of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate on enzyme activity levels in liver and serum of rats. Dirven, H.A., van den Broek, P.H., Jongeneelen, F.J. Toxicology (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Application of microencapsulation for toxicology studies. II. Toxicity of microencapsulated trichloroethylene in Fischer 344 rats. Melnick, R.L., Jameson, C.W., Goehl, T.J., Maronpot, R.R., Collins, B.J., Greenwell, A., Harrington, F.W., Wilson, R.E., Tomaszewski, K.E., Agarwal, D.K. Fundamental and applied toxicology : official journal of the Society of Toxicology. (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. Identification of an extended half-site motif required for the function of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. Osada, S., Tsukamoto, T., Takiguchi, M., Mori, M., Osumi, T. Genes Cells (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Role of thyroid state on induction by ciprofibrate of laurate hydroxylase and peroxisomal enzymes in rat liver microsomes. Pacot, C., Charmoillaux, M., Goudonnet, H., Truchot, R.C., Latruffe, N. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Stimulation of acyl-CoA oxidase by alpha-linolenic acid-rich perilla oil lowers plasma triacylglycerol level in rats. Kim, H.K., Choi, H. Life Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Failure of the peroxisome proliferator WY-14,643 to induce unscheduled DNA synthesis in rat hepatocytes following in vivo treatment. Cattley, R.C., Smith-Oliver, T., Butterworth, B.E., Popp, J.A. Carcinogenesis (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. A sensitive spectrophotometric assay for peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase. Small, G.M., Burdett, K., Connock, M.J. Biochem. J. (1985) [Pubmed]
  17. Differences between the promoting activities of the peroxisome proliferator WY-14,643 and phenobarbital in rat liver. Cattley, R.C., Popp, J.A. Cancer Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Beta-oxidation of the carboxyl side chain of prostaglandin E2 in rat liver peroxisomes and mitochondria. Schepers, L., Casteels, M., Vamecq, J., Parmentier, G., Van Veldhoven, P.P., Mannaerts, G.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  19. Identification and purification of a peroxisomal branched chain fatty acyl-CoA oxidase. Van Veldhoven, P.P., Vanhove, G., Vanhoutte, F., Dacremont, G., Parmentier, G., Eyssen, H.J., Mannaerts, G.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Lack of DNA damage or lipid peroxidation measured in vivo in the rat liver following treatment with peroxisomal proliferators. Elliott, B.M., Elcombe, C.R. Carcinogenesis (1987) [Pubmed]
  21. Cetaben and fibrates both influence the activities of peroxisomal enzymes in different ways. Chandoga, J., Rojeková, I., Hampl, L., Hocman, G. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Copurification of dihydroxyacetone-phosphate acyl-transferase and other peroxisomal proteins from liver of fenofibrate-treated rats. Causeret, C., Bentejac, M., Albet, S., Teubner, B., Bugaut, M. Biochimie (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. Impairment of peroxisomal structure and function in rat liver allograft rejection: prevention by cyclosporine. Steinmetz, I., Weber, T., Beier, K., Czerny, F., Kusterer, K., Hanisch, E., Völkl, A., Fahimi, H.D., Angermüller, S. Transplantation (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Effects of the peroxisome proliferator mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in primary hepatocyte cultures derived from rat, guinea pig, rabbit and monkey. Relationship between interspecies differences in biotransformation and peroxisome proliferating potencies. Dirven, H.A., van den Broek, P.H., Peeters, M.C., Peters, J.G., Mennes, W.C., Blaauboer, B.J., Noordhoek, J., Jongeneelen, F.J. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Two-generation reproduction toxicity studies of di-(C(7)-C(9) alkyl) phthalate and di-(C(9)-C(11) alkyl) phthalate in the rat. Willoughby, C.R., Fulcher, S.M., Creasy, D.M., Heath, J.A., Priston, R.A., Moore, N.P. Reprod. Toxicol. (2000) [Pubmed]
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