The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

PSD  -  pleckstrin and Sec7 domain containing

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: EFA6, EFA6A, Exchange factor for ARF6, KIAA2011, PH and SEC7 domain-containing protein 1, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of PSD

  • Because decreasing sample heterogeneity would increase the power to identify genes, the effect on evidence for linkage of restricting a sample of autism-affected relative pairs to those with delayed onset (at age >36 mo) of phrase speech (PSD, for phrase speech delay) was studied [1].
  • Data related to 467 French patients grafted from 1982 to 1995 for primary sensitive disease (PSD, 22%), primary refractory disease (PRD, 18%), first relapse (R1, 45%), or subsequent relapses (R2, 15%) were analyzed [2].
  • RESULTS: There was non-random geographical distribution of AD PSD but not of the comparison conditions (vascular dementia (VaD), motor neurone disease, prostatic or ovarian cancers) [3].
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess trends in ARV use and long-term survival in an observational cohort of HIV-infected children and adolescents in the United States. METHODS: The Pediatric Spectrum of HIV Disease Study (PSD) is a prospective chart review of more than 2000 HIV-infected children and adolescents [4].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Slow colonic transit, decreased phasic rectal contraction, weak abdominal strain, and PSD were all features in our PD patients with frequent constipation [5].

Psychiatry related information on PSD

  • BACKGROUND: Factors that determine geographical differences in incidence rates of 'probable' presenile Alzheimer's disease (AD PSD) may help to clarify the possible role of the environment in its aetiology [3].
  • There was a significant negative correlation between response to PSD and sleep duration, and in particular, REM sleep duration, in the late sleep deprivation situation [6].
  • In CJD, back-averaging demonstrated a sharp wave or PSD over the contralateral hemisphere, preceding the myoclonus by 50 to 85 msec [7].
  • Dementia was recorded for 90.5% of AD PSD patients but for only 49.7% of the VaD group [8].
  • In subchronic experiments (4 days), rats were exposed to intermittent hypoxia (IH) during the light period (2min room air-2min 10% O(2) for 12h/day) and/or paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD, 24h/day) [9].

High impact information on PSD

  • DLC colocalizes with PSD-95 and F-actin in dendritic spines of cultured neurons and is enriched in biochemical purifications of PSD [10].
  • In addition, experiments in cell-free systems have suggested that electrostatic interactions between the positively charged phosphorylation site/calmodulin binding domain (PSD) of MARCKS and negatively charged membrane lipids are also involved in this association [11].
  • Although it has been inferred from phosphorylation experiments, the electrostatic nature of the interaction between the PSD and membranes has not been demonstrated directly in intact cells [11].
  • Of the synaptic characteristics that may play a role in synaptic plasticity, the PSD, synaptic curvature, the spinule, coated vesicles, polyribosomes, and the spine apparatus have all been implicated [12].
  • When threshold asymmetry between eyes existed, the eye with lower thresholds was at a 37% greater risk of development of POAG, and this feature was more predictive of POAG onset than the visual field index MD, though not as strong a predictor as PSD [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of PSD


Biological context of PSD

  • For 10% and 30% rim loss, FDT 24-2 PSD had a significantly larger AUC than did SAP SITA PSD [15].
  • Increased paternal age was associated with AD PSD but only in men [16].
  • MALDI/PSD analysis of glycopeptides converted to their acetyl phosphonium derivatives is an effective alternative to electron capture dissociation, as illustrated by the positioning of up to three GalNac residues along the full tandem repeat peptide sequence derived from the MUC 5AC mucin [17].
  • However, the PD patients had larger anal contraction on defecation (p<0.05), evidence of paradoxical sphincter contraction on defecation (PSD) [5].
  • To investigate the molecular basis of resistance to PSD, reliable in vitro drug assays are required to permit correlation of resistance levels with different genotypes [14].

Anatomical context of PSD

  • The feasibility of employing PSD after HPLC separation was demonstrated by characterizing the endogenous retinoids in canine kidney epithelial cell extracts and in mouse lung [18].
  • Abnormal results were taken to be as follows: for VEPs, a P100 latency >115 ms; for FDP, abnormal mean deviation (MD) or pattern SD (PSD); for SAP, abnormal MD or PSD; for CS, abnormal CS at one spatial frequency, at least; and for MRI, evidence of at least one demyelinating plaque along the visual pathway [19].
  • Gene expression in the N-methyl-d-aspartate postsynaptic density (NMDA-PSD), as well as other functional groups, was compared in postmortem hippocampus of schizophrenic and nonmentally ill smokers and nonsmokers utilizing a microarray and quantitative RT-PCR approach [20].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The origin of background EEG was traced to self-sustaining mutual excitation among pyramidal cells creating stable noise that was filtered by self-organized criticality to give 1/f(2) PSD, by inhibitory feedback to give oscillations in the classic clinical bands, and by volume conduction to give smoothing [21].
  • We compare the pH dependence of DBDS influx to DBDS binding using: (a) control cells, (b) cells selectively crosslinked at the PSD site by treatment with 300 muM BS(3) (bis(sulfosuccinimidyl)suberate), and (c) cells with DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyanato-2,2'-stilbenedisulfonate) bound covalently to the PSD site [22].

Associations of PSD with chemical compounds

  • The PSD of the full-length HVA : 5-HIAA ratio series after treatment increased in rapid variability (20-103 min periods, p<0.05) [23].
  • The present study demonstrates that matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/postsource decay (MALDI/PSD) analysis of the molecular cation of glycopeptides derivatized at their amino terminus with a phosphonium group cleaves peptide backbone without removing the glycan [17].
  • Power spectral density (PSD-the Fourier magnitude squared) of the 5-HIAA signals at periods of 1.75 and 3.7 h (both p<0.05) decreased, while circadian cycling of HVA levels (p<0.05) and of the ratio (p<0.005) increased after treatment [23].
  • Some oxonium ions that were observed in the low-mass region, but that were not found in the PSD analyses (Mo, W.; et al. Anal. Chem. 1998, 70, 4520-4526), rendered a more detailed structural insight [24].
  • To demonstrate the improvement brought about by using PSD spectra, we have analyzed known samples, consisting of simple binary mixtures of methanol and ethanol doped with laser dye [25].

Other interactions of PSD

  • Identification of a novel gene, PSD, adjacent to NFKB2/lyt-10, which contains Sec7 and pleckstrin-homology domains [26].
  • The initial recruitment of tyrosine kinases to NMDA receptor during the first 3 h of reperfusion is generally consistent with an active postischemic remodeling of PSD and may participate in the induction of the postischemic signal transduction pathway in gerbil hippocampus [27].
  • In rigorous jackknife tests, unknown sequences from Pfam-A and PIR-PSD were compared with the probes for each family [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PSD

  • Northern blot analysis of a panel of RNAs from normal human tissues using the PSD cDNA as probe revealed the presence of three different tissue-specific transcripts of approximately 4.3, 2.3, and 1.8 kb, the longest of which is expressed only in brain [26].
  • Immunogold electron microscopy reveals a concentration of DLC in the postsynaptic compartment of asymmetric synapses of brain in which it is associated with the PSD and the spine apparatus [10].
  • We expressed human MARCKS mutated in the myristoylation site and the PSD in REF52 cells; the cells were then fractionated by ultracentrifugation [11].
  • PSD decreased perfusion over much of the responder's hyperperfused area but did not change the nonresponder's scan [29].
  • Functional outcome variables for glaucomatous damage were mean deviation (MD), pattern SD (PSD), and Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS) score [30].


  1. Evidence for a susceptibility gene for autism on chromosome 2 and for genetic heterogeneity. Buxbaum, J.D., Silverman, J.M., Smith, C.J., Kilifarski, M., Reichert, J., Hollander, E., Lawlor, B.A., Fitzgerald, M., Greenberg, D.A., Davis, K.L. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Treatment-related deaths and second cancer risk after autologous stem-cell transplantation for Hodgkin's disease. André, M., Henry-Amar, M., Blaise, D., Colombat, P., Fleury, J., Milpied, N., Cahn, J.Y., Pico, J.L., Bastion, Y., Kuentz, M., Nedellec, G., Attal, M., Fermé, C., Gisselbrecht, C. Blood (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Epidemiology of presenile Alzheimer's disease in Scotland (1974-88) I. non-random geographical variation. Whalley, L.J., Thomas, B.M., McGonigal, G., McQuade, C.A., Swingler, R., Black, R. The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Trends in antiretroviral therapy use and survival rates for a large cohort of HIV-infected children and adolescents in the United States, 1989-2001. McConnell, M.S., Byers, R.H., Frederick, T., Peters, V.B., Dominguez, K.L., Sukalac, T., Greenberg, A.E., Hsu, H.W., Rakusan, T.A., Ortiz, I.R., Melville, S.K., Fowler, M.G. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Colonic transit time and rectoanal videomanometry in Parkinson's disease. Sakakibara, R., Odaka, T., Uchiyama, T., Asahina, M., Yamaguchi, K., Yamaguchi, T., Yamanishi, T., Hattori, T. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. The timing and duration of sleep in partial sleep deprivation therapy of depression. Sack, D.A., Duncan, W., Rosenthal, N.E., Mendelson, W.E., Wehr, T.A. Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. (1988) [Pubmed]
  7. Electroencephalographic correlates of myoclonus. Shibasaki, H., Yamashita, Y., Tobimatsu, S., Neshige, R. Advances in neurology. (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. Death certification in treated cases of presenile Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia in Scotland. Thomas, B.M., Starr, J.M., Whalley, L.J. Age and ageing. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Consequences of subchronic and chronic exposure to intermittent hypoxia and sleep deprivation on cardiovascular risk factors in rats. Perry, J.C., D'Almeida, V., Souza, F.G., Schoorlemmer, G.H., Colombari, E., Tufik, S. Respiratory physiology & neurobiology (2007) [Pubmed]
  10. Interaction of the postsynaptic density-95/guanylate kinase domain-associated protein complex with a light chain of myosin-V and dynein. Naisbitt, S., Valtschanoff, J., Allison, D.W., Sala, C., Kim, E., Craig, A.M., Weinberg, R.J., Sheng, M. J. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Myristoylation-dependent and electrostatic interactions exert independent effects on the membrane association of the myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate protein in intact cells. Swierczynski, S.L., Blackshear, P.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Contributions of dendritic spines and perforated synapses to synaptic plasticity. Calverley, R.K., Jones, D.G. Brain Res. Brain Res. Rev. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Asymmetries and visual field summaries as predictors of glaucoma in the ocular hypertension treatment study. Levine, R.A., Demirel, S., Fan, J., Keltner, J.L., Johnson, C.A., Kass, M.A. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. A modified in vitro sulfadoxine susceptibility assay for Plasmodium falciparum suitable for investigating Fansidar resistance. Wang, P., Sims, P.F., Hyde, J.E. Parasitology (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. A statistical approach to the evaluation of covariate effects on the receiver operating characteristic curves of diagnostic tests in glaucoma. Medeiros, F.A., Sample, P.A., Zangwill, L.M., Liebmann, J.M., Girkin, C.A., Weinreb, R.N. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Epidemiology of presenile Alzheimer's disease in Scotland (1974-88) II. Exposures to possible risk factors. Whalley, L.J., Thomas, B.M., Starr, J.M. The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Localization of the O-glycosylated sites in peptides by fixed-charge derivatization with a phosphonium group. Czeszak, X., Morelle, W., Ricart, G., Tétaert, D., Lemoine, J. Anal. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Structure elucidation of retinoids in biological samples using postsource decay laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry after high-performance liquid chromatography separation. Suh, M.J., Tang, X.H., Gudas, L.J. Anal. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Subclinical visual involvement in multiple sclerosis: a study by MRI, VEPs, frequency-doubling perimetry, standard perimetry, and contrast sensitivity. Sisto, D., Trojano, M., Vetrugno, M., Trabucco, T., Iliceto, G., Sborgia, C. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Differential modulation of gene expression in the NMDA postsynaptic density of schizophrenic and control smokers. Mexal, S., Frank, M., Berger, R., Adams, C.E., Ross, R.G., Freedman, R., Leonard, S. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Origin, structure, and role of background EEG activity. Part 4: Neural frame simulation. Freeman, W.J. Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Band 3 (AE1, SLC4A1)-mediated transport of stilbenedisulfonates. I: Functional identification of the proton-activated stilbenedisulfonate influx site. Salhany, J.M., Cordes, K.S., Sloan, R.L. Blood Cells Mol. Dis. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Treatment enhances ultradian rhythms of CSF monoamine metabolites in patients with major depressive episodes. Salomon, R.M., Kennedy, J.S., Johnson, B.W., Urbano Blackford, J., Schmidt, D.E., Kwentus, J., Gwirtsman, H.E., Gouda, J.F., Shiavi, R.G. Neuropsychopharmacology (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Structural characterization of chemically derivatized oligosaccharides by nanoflow electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Mo, W., Sakamoto, H., Nishikawa, A., Kagi, N., Langridge, J.I., Shimonishi, Y., Takao, T. Anal. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Quantitative Raman spectroscopy of highly fluorescent samples using pseudosecond derivatives and multivariate analysis. O'Grady, A., Dennis, A.C., Denvir, D., McGarvey, J.J., Bell, S.E. Anal. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Identification of a novel gene, PSD, adjacent to NFKB2/lyt-10, which contains Sec7 and pleckstrin-homology domains. Perletti, L., Talarico, D., Trecca, D., Ronchetti, D., Fracchiolla, N.S., Maiolo, A.T., Neri, A. Genomics (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Transient forebrain ischemia effects interaction of Src, FAK, and PYK2 with the NR2B subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in gerbil hippocampus. Zalewska, T., Ziemka-Nałecz, M., Domańska-Janik, K. Brain Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. A sequence alignment-independent method for protein classification. Vries, J.K., Munshi, R., Tobi, D., Klein-Seetharaman, J., Benos, P.V., Bahar, I. Appl. Bioinformatics (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Sleep deprivation, EEG, and functional MRI in depression: preliminary results. Clark, C.P., Frank, L.R., Brown, G.G. Neuropsychopharmacology (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Circadian fluctuation of mean ocular perfusion pressure is a consistent risk factor for normal-tension glaucoma. Choi, J., Kim, K.H., Jeong, J., Cho, H.S., Lee, C.H., Kook, M.S. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2007) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities