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Gene Review

AIMP1  -  aminoacyl tRNA synthetase complex...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Aminoacyl tRNA synthase complex-interacting multifunctional protein 1, EMAP-2, EMAP2, EMAPII, HLD3, ...
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Disease relevance of SCYE1

  • The N terminus of in vitro-processed EMAPII coincides exactly with that of the mature cytokine isolated from conditioned medium of fibrosarcoma cells [1].
  • We investigated its effects on lymphocytes, using recombinant protein, or colorectal cancer cell lines, as a source of native EMAP-II [2].
  • A single intra-tumor injection of EMAP II into Meth A sarcomas induced acute thrombohemorrhage and partial tumor regression [3].
  • Systemic infusion of EMAP II into C3H/HeJ or Balb/c mice was associated with systemic toxicity, pulmonary congestion, and the appearance of TNF, interleukin-1 and -6 in the plasma [3].
  • The similar structures to the RNA binding motif of EMAP II was previously observed in the anticodon binding domain of yeast Asp-tRNA synthetase (AspRSSC) and the B2 domain of Thermus thermophilus Phe-tRNA synthetase [4].

High impact information on SCYE1

  • In growing capillary endothelial cultures, EMAP II induced apoptosis in a time- and dose-dependent manner, whereas other cell types were unaffected [5].
  • These data suggest that EMAP II is a tumor-suppressive mediator with antiangiogenic properties allowing it to target growing endothelium and limit establishment of neovasculature [5].
  • In a lung metastasis model, EMAP II blocked outgrowth of Lewis lung carcinoma macrometastases; total surface metastases were diminished by 65%, and of the 35% metastases present, approximately 80% were inhibited with maximum diameter <2 mm (P < 0.002 vs. controls) [5].
  • Intraperitoneally administered EMAP II suppressed the growth of primary Lewis lung carcinomas, with a reduction in tumor volume of 65% versus controls (P < 0.003) [5].
  • The low sequence homology between the extra domain of EMAPII and either its own OB fold or that of Trbps suggests that dimer mimicry originated from convergent evolution rather than gene duplication [6].

Chemical compound and disease context of SCYE1


Biological context of SCYE1

  • Endothelial monocyte activating polypeptide II (EMAPII) is a cytokine that is specifically induced by apoptosis [9].
  • Aminoacylation activity of RRS was enhanced about 2.5-fold by the interaction with pro-EMAPII but not with its N- or C-terminal domains alone [9].
  • Neutrophils exposed to EMAP II demonstrated elevated cytosolic free calcium concentration, peroxidase generation, and chemotaxis [3].
  • As a consequence, p43 compares well with a molecular fuse that triggers the irreversible cell growth/cell death transition induced under apoptotic conditions [1].
  • Modulation of cellular phenotype by EMAP II-derived peptide was suggested by peptide-induced elevation of cytosolic free calcium concentration in fura-2-loaded MPs and PMNs and by stimulation of peroxidase release in PMNs [10].

Anatomical context of SCYE1


Associations of SCYE1 with chemical compounds

  • Local injection of EMAP II into a tumor resistant to the effects of TNF, murine mammary carcinoma, rendered it sensitive to subsequently administered TNF, which resulted in acute thrombohemorrhage and partial regression [3].
  • The sequence of several proEMAP II proteins suggests that the p43 component of the complex is the precursor of the active mature cytokine after cleavage at a conserved Asp residue [12].
  • Based on the NH2-terminal protein sequence, a full-length cDNA has been cloned which indicates that the precursor of EMAP II is a unique, leaderless, single polypeptide chain with predicted molecular mass approximately 34 kDa and that the mature form released by Meth A cells corresponds to approximately 20 kDa [3].
  • Cross-linking of 125I-EMAP II-derived peptide (residues 12-20) by disuccinimidyl suberate to human MPs demonstrated a band, approximately 73 kDa, on reduced sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis [10].
  • Incubation of fresh endometrial tissue (n = 5) with 3 micro g/ml indomethacin resulted in an increase in EMAP II protein expression, compared with control untreated tissue [13].

Physical interactions of SCYE1


Regulatory relationships of SCYE1


Other interactions of SCYE1

  • Moreover, their expression inversely correlates with tumor diameter and with RARS expression (P < 0.05), but directly correlates with p43 secretion (P < 0.02) [17].
  • Among these genes, downregulated in ovarian cancer 1 (DOC1) gene was studied further because of its possible role in EMAP-II induced cytoskeletal remodeling [14].
  • The p43 protein is associated with human macromolecular aminoacyl tRNA synthetase complex and secreted to up-regulate diverse proinflammatory genes including TNF [15].
  • Interaction of the C-terminal domain of p43 and the alpha subunit of ATP synthase. Its functional implication in endothelial cell proliferation [11].
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data suggests a novel function for EMAP II and a hitherto undescribed role of the CXCR3 chemokine receptor in EPC recruitment [18].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SCYE1


  1. The EMAPII cytokine is released from the mammalian multisynthetase complex after cleavage of its p43/proEMAPII component. Shalak, V., Kaminska, M., Mitnacht-Kraus, R., Vandenabeele, P., Clauss, M., Mirande, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Colorectal cancer cells induce lymphocyte apoptosis by an endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide-II-dependent mechanism. Murray, J.C., Symonds, P., Ward, W., Huggins, M., Tiga, A., Rice, K., Heng, Y.M., Todd, I., Robins, R.A. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Characterization of a novel tumor-derived cytokine. Endothelial-monocyte activating polypeptide II. Kao, J., Houck, K., Fan, Y., Haehnel, I., Libutti, S.K., Kayton, M.L., Grikscheit, T., Chabot, J., Nowygrod, R., Greenberg, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. A novel anti-tumor cytokine contains an RNA binding motif present in aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Kim, Y., Shin, J., Li, R., Cheong, C., Kim, K., Kim, S. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Endothelial-monocyte activating polypeptide II, a novel antitumor cytokine that suppresses primary and metastatic tumor growth and induces apoptosis in growing endothelial cells. Schwarz, M.A., Kandel, J., Brett, J., Li, J., Hayward, J., Schwarz, R.E., Chappey, O., Wautier, J.L., Chabot, J., Lo Gerfo, P., Stern, D. J. Exp. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Structure of the EMAPII domain of human aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex reveals evolutionary dimer mimicry. Renault, L., Kerjan, P., Pasqualato, S., Ménétrey, J., Robinson, J.C., Kawaguchi, S., Vassylyev, D.G., Yokoyama, S., Mirande, M., Cherfils, J. EMBO J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Placental isoferritin associated p43 antigen correlates with features of high differentiation in breast cancer. Rosen, H.R., Moroz, C., Reiner, A., Reinerova, M., Stierer, M., Svec, J., Schemper, M., Jakesz, R. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Immunosuppression by breast cancer associated p43-effect of immunomodulators. Rosen, H.R., Ausch, C., Reiner, G., Reinerova, M., Svec, J., Tüchler, H., Schiessel, R., Moroz, C. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Precursor of pro-apoptotic cytokine modulates aminoacylation activity of tRNA synthetase. Park, S.G., Jung, K.H., Lee, J.S., Jo, Y.J., Motegi, H., Kim, S., Shiba, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. A peptide derived from the amino terminus of endothelial-monocyte-activating polypeptide II modulates mononuclear and polymorphonuclear leukocyte functions, defines an apparently novel cellular interaction site, and induces an acute inflammatory response. Kao, J., Fan, Y.G., Haehnel, I., Brett, J., Greenberg, S., Clauss, M., Kayton, M., Houck, K., Kisiel, W., Seljelid, R. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Interaction of the C-terminal domain of p43 and the alpha subunit of ATP synthase. Its functional implication in endothelial cell proliferation. Chang, S.Y., Park, S.G., Kim, S., Kang, C.Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. The p43 component of the mammalian multi-synthetase complex is likely to be the precursor of the endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide II cytokine. Quevillon, S., Agou, F., Robinson, J.C., Mirande, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Expression and localization of endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide II in the human endometrium across the menstrual cycle: regulation of expression by prostaglandin E(2). Battersby, S., Boddy, S.C., Critchley, H.O., Jabbour, H.N. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Endothelial monocyte activating polypeptide-II induced gene expression changes in endothelial cells. Tandle, A.T., Mazzanti, C., Alexander, H.R., Roberts, D.D., Libutti, S.K. Cytokine (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Signaling pathways for TNF production induced by human aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase-associating factor, p43. Park, H., Park, S.G., Kim, J., Ko, Y.G., Kim, S. Cytokine (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Expanding the phenotype of alveolar capillary dysplasia (ACD). Sen, P., Thakur, N., Stockton, D.W., Langston, C., Bejjani, B.A. J. Pediatr. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. miR-15a and miR-16-1 down-regulation in pituitary adenomas. Bottoni, A., Piccin, D., Tagliati, F., Luchin, A., Zatelli, M.C., degli Uberti, E.C. J. Cell. Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Endothelial-monocyte-activating polypeptide II induces migration of endothelial progenitor cells via the chemokine receptor CXCR3. Hou, Y., Plett, P.A., Ingram, D.A., Rajashekhar, G., Orschell, C.M., Yoder, M.C., March, K.L., Clauss, M. Exp. Hematol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide-II (EMAP-II): a novel inducer of lymphocyte apoptosis. Murray, J.C., Heng, Y.M., Symonds, P., Rice, K., Ward, W., Huggins, M., Todd, I., Robins, R.A. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
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