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Gene Review

osmY  -  salt-inducible putative ABC transporter...

Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Synonyms: ECK4367, JW4338
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Disease relevance of osmY


Psychiatry related information on osmY

  • Since intrinsic resistance involves the collaboration of restricted outer membrane permeability and secondary defense mechanisms, such as periplasmic beta-lactamase (which H. pylori lacks) or efflux, we examined the possible role of efflux in antibiotic susceptibility [6].

High impact information on osmY

  • E. coli, and other gram negative microorganisms, contain a periplasmic Cu, ZnSOD that may serve to protect against extracellular O2-. Mn(III) complexes of multidentate macrocyclic nitrogenous ligands catalyze the dismutation of O2- and are being explored as potential pharmaceutical agents [7].
  • Oxidation of cysteine pairs to disulfide requires cellular factors present in the bacterial periplasmic space [8].
  • DsbB is an E. coli membrane protein that oxidizes DsbA, a periplasmic dithiol oxidase [8].
  • These are propagated and amplified across the plug, eventually resulting in substantially different protein conformations at the periplasmic face [9].
  • Protease and biotinylation accessibility studies of right side-out and inside-out membrane vesicles derived from this strain revealed that SecA was exposed to the periplasmic surface of the inner membrane [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of osmY

  • Cationic antimicrobial peptides, such as polymyxin and cecropin, activated transcription of osmY and micF in growing Escherichia coli independently of each other [11].
  • The periplasmic acid glucose-1-phosphatase (G-1-Pase) encoded by gene agp is necessary for the growth of Escherichia coli in a minimal medium containing glucose-1-phosphate (G-1-P) as the sole source of carbon [12].
  • Purification of the precursor form of maltose-binding protein, a periplasmic protein of Escherichia coli [13].
  • Cationic antimicrobial peptides, such as polymyxin B (PxB), below growth inhibitory concentration induce expression of osmY gene in viable E. coli without leakage of solutes and protons. osmY expression is also a locus of hyperosmotic stress response induced by common food preservatives, such as hypertonic NaCl or sucrose [14].
  • Lipoproteins in Escherichia coli are anchored to the periplasmic side of either the inner or the outer membrane by a lipid moiety that is covalently attached to the amino-terminal cysteine residue [15].

Biological context of osmY


Anatomical context of osmY

  • The simplest explanation for these results and those of pulse-chase experiments is that specific sites in the cytoplasmic membrane become progressively occupied by the hybrid protein, resulting in an inhibition of normal localization and processing of periplasmic and outer-membrane proteins [20].
  • In this study, we show that depletion of the periplasmic contents of the cell by spheroplast formation does indeed lead to induction of the Cpx envelope stress response [21].
  • The periplasmic dipeptide-binding protein (DBP), encoded by the dppA gene, also serves as a chemoreceptor [22].
  • By the same genetic screens, we characterized loop-variant MBPs associated with a defective periplasmic folding pathway and aggregated into inclusion bodies [23].
  • Six contingent aromatic residues line the channel and form a path from the vestibule to the periplasmic outlet [24].

Associations of osmY with chemical compounds

  • One of these mutations conferred glucose sensitivity and was localized in pgi (encoding phosphoglucose isomerase). pgi::Tn10 strains exhibit increased basal levels of expression of osmY and otsBA in exponentially growing cells and reduced osmotic inducibility of these genes [25].
  • We therefore propose that the cellular content of UDP-glucose serves as an internal signal that controls expression of osmY and other sigma S-dependent genes [25].
  • Conversely, replacement of -35 site cytosine nucleotides with thymidine in the sigma S-dependent osmY promoter reduced transcription by E sigma S and increased transcription by E sigma D. Our data suggest that DNA sequences in the -35 region function as part of a discriminator mechanism to shift transcription between E sigma D and E sigma S [26].
  • Starting from a soluble cell extract of this strain, the precursor form of the maltose-binding protein, a periplasmic protein, was purified to homogeneity [13].
  • Using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, we found a protein of molecular weight 58,000 among the periplasmic proteins of the pTRE5-carrying strain that was absent in UE5 [27].

Other interactions of osmY

  • We cloned the chiA (yheB) gene and demonstrated that it codes for a 94.5 kDa periplasmic protein with endochitinase/lysozyme activity [28].
  • A chromosomal transcriptional lacZ fusion (csi-5::lacZ) was used to study the regulation of osmY [29].
  • The most consistently activated E. coli promoters were those for genes micF, osmY, and dinD [18].
  • The mRNA levels of the rpoS and osmY stress genes drastically decrease after induction of the strong overexpression system [30].
  • Transcription in vitro of two osmoregulated promoters, for the Escherichia coli osmB and osmY genes, was analysed using two species of RNA polymerase holoenzyme reconstituted from purified core enzyme and either sigma D (sigma 70, the major sigma in exponentially growing cells) or sigma S (sigma 38, the principal sigma at stationary growth phase) [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of osmY


  1. osmY, a new hyperosmotically inducible gene, encodes a periplasmic protein in Escherichia coli. Yim, H.H., Villarejo, M. J. Bacteriol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Inactivation of FhuA at the cell surface of Escherichia coli K-12 by a phage T5 lipoprotein at the periplasmic face of the outer membrane. Braun, V., Killmann, H., Herrmann, C. J. Bacteriol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Depletion of apolipoprotein N-acyltransferase causes mislocalization of outer membrane lipoproteins in Escherichia coli. Robichon, C., Vidal-Ingigliardi, D., Pugsley, A.P. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Proton motive force drives the interaction of the inner membrane TolA and outer membrane pal proteins in Escherichia coli. Cascales, E., Gavioli, M., Sturgis, J.N., Lloubès, R. Mol. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Cloning, sequence, and footprint analysis of two promoter/operators from Corynebacterium diphtheriae that are regulated by the diphtheria toxin repressor (DtxR) and iron. Schmitt, M.P., Holmes, R.K. J. Bacteriol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Helicobacter pylori uptake and efflux: basis for intrinsic susceptibility to antibiotics in vitro. Bina, J.E., Alm, R.A., Uria-Nickelsen, M., Thomas, S.R., Trust, T.J., Hancock, R.E. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Superoxide radical and superoxide dismutases. Fridovich, I. Annu. Rev. Biochem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Crystal Structure of the DsbB-DsbA Complex Reveals a Mechanism of Disulfide Bond Generation. Inaba, K., Murakami, S., Suzuki, M., Nakagawa, A., Yamashita, E., Okada, K., Ito, K. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Transmembrane signaling across the ligand-gated FhuA receptor: crystal structures of free and ferrichrome-bound states reveal allosteric changes. Locher, K.P., Rees, B., Koebnik, R., Mitschler, A., Moulinier, L., Rosenbusch, J.P., Moras, D. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. SecA protein is exposed to the periplasmic surface of the E. coli inner membrane in its active state. Kim, Y.J., Rajapandi, T., Oliver, D. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Cationic peptide antimicrobials induce selective transcription of micF and osmY in Escherichia coli. Oh, J.T., Cajal, Y., Skowronska, E.M., Belkin, S., Chen, J., Van Dyk, T.K., Sasser, M., Jain, M.K. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Utilization of exogenous glucose-1-phosphate as a source of carbon or phosphate by Escherichia coli K12: respective roles of acid glucose-1-phosphatase, hexose-phosphate permease, phosphoglucomutase and alkaline phosphatase. Pradel, E., Boquet, P.L. Res. Microbiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Purification of the precursor form of maltose-binding protein, a periplasmic protein of Escherichia coli. Ito, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  14. Osmotic stress in viable Escherichia coli as the basis for the antibiotic response by polymyxin B. Oh, J.T., Van Dyk, T.K., Cajal, Y., Dhurjati, P.S., Sasser, M., Jain, M.K. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. A new ABC transporter mediating the detachment of lipid-modified proteins from membranes. Yakushi, T., Masuda, K., Narita, S., Matsuyama, S., Tokuda, H. Nat. Cell Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. RpoS-regulated genes of Escherichia coli identified by random lacZ fusion mutagenesis. Vijayakumar, S.R., Kirchhof, M.G., Patten, C.L., Schellhorn, H.E. J. Bacteriol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Molecular characterization of the promoter of osmY, an rpoS-dependent gene. Yim, H.H., Brems, R.L., Villarejo, M. J. Bacteriol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Bile salt activation of stress response promoters in Escherichia coli. Bernstein, C., Bernstein, H., Payne, C.M., Beard, S.E., Schneider, J. Curr. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Binding protein dependent transport of glycine betaine and its osmotic regulation in Escherichia coli K12. May, G., Faatz, E., Villarejo, M., Bremer, E. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1986) [Pubmed]
  20. Protein localization in E. coli: is there a common step in the secretion of periplasmic and outer-membrane proteins? Ito, K., Bassford, P.J., Beckwith, J. Cell (1981) [Pubmed]
  21. Tethering of CpxP to the inner membrane prevents spheroplast induction of the cpx envelope stress response. Raivio, T.L., Laird, M.W., Joly, J.C., Silhavy, T.J. Mol. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. The dipeptide permease of Escherichia coli closely resembles other bacterial transport systems and shows growth-phase-dependent expression. Abouhamad, W.N., Manson, M.D. Mol. Microbiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Probing the structural role of an alpha beta loop of maltose-binding protein by mutagenesis: heat-shock induction by loop variants of the maltose-binding protein that form periplasmic inclusion bodies. Betton, J.M., Boscus, D., Missiakas, D., Raina, S., Hofnung, M. J. Mol. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Structural basis for sugar translocation through maltoporin channels at 3.1 A resolution. Schirmer, T., Keller, T.A., Wang, Y.F., Rosenbusch, J.P. Science (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. UDP-glucose is a potential intracellular signal molecule in the control of expression of sigma S and sigma S-dependent genes in Escherichia coli. Böhringer, J., Fischer, D., Mosler, G., Hengge-Aronis, R. J. Bacteriol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. Sequences in the -35 region of Escherichia coli rpoS-dependent genes promote transcription by E sigma S. Wise, A., Brems, R., Ramakrishnan, V., Villarejo, M. J. Bacteriol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  27. Trehalase of Escherichia coli. Mapping and cloning of its structural gene and identification of the enzyme as a periplasmic protein induced under high osmolarity growth conditions. Boos, W., Ehmann, U., Bremer, E., Middendorf, A., Postma, P. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  28. The ChiA (YheB) protein of Escherichia coli K-12 is an endochitinase whose gene is negatively controlled by the nucleoid-structuring protein H-NS. Francetic, O., Badaut, C., Rimsky, S., Pugsley, A.P. Mol. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. Complex transcriptional control of the sigma s-dependent stationary-phase-induced and osmotically regulated osmY (csi-5) gene suggests novel roles for Lrp, cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein-cAMP complex, and integration host factor in the stationary-phase response of Escherichia coli. Lange, R., Barth, M., Hengge-Aronis, R. J. Bacteriol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  30. Role of the general stress response during strong overexpression of a heterologous gene in Escherichia coli. Schweder, T., Lin, H.Y., Jürgen, B., Breitenstein, A., Riemschneider, S., Khalameyzer, V., Gupta, A., Büttner, K., Neubauer, P. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Promoter selectivity control of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase by ionic strength: differential recognition of osmoregulated promoters by E sigma D and E sigma S holoenzymes. Ding, Q., Kusano, S., Villarejo, M., Ishihama, A. Mol. Microbiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. The inducible trimethylamine N-oxide reductase of Escherichia coli K12: its localization and inducers. Silvestro, A., Pommier, J., Pascal, M.C., Giordano, G. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1989) [Pubmed]
  33. Cecropins induce the hyperosmotic stress response in Escherichia coli. Oh, J.T., Cajal, Y., Dhurjati, P.S., Van Dyk, T.K., Jain, M.K. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1998) [Pubmed]
  34. The Tsr chemosensory transducer of Escherichia coli assembles into the cytoplasmic membrane via a SecA-dependent process. Gebert, J.F., Overhoff, B., Manson, M.D., Boos, W. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  35. Escherichia coli thioesterase I, molecular cloning and sequencing of the structural gene and identification as a periplasmic enzyme. Cho, H., Cronan, J.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  36. Escherichia coli DipZ: anatomy of a transmembrane protein disulphide reductase in which three pairs of cysteine residues, one in each of three domains, contribute differentially to function. Gordon, E.H., Page, M.D., Willis, A.C., Ferguson, S.J. Mol. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
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