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Disease relevance of Laryngoscopy


Psychiatry related information on Laryngoscopy


High impact information on Laryngoscopy

  • This finding, in conjunction with evidence of airway injury such as seen on laryngoscopy, strongly supports the relation between GER and airway disease [6].
  • Laryngoscopy is recommended if hoarseness occurs during treatment with fluticasone [7].
  • The results confirmed previous reports of the accuracy and value of transaxial CT and direct laryngoscopy, but indicated that coronal and sagittal reconstruction as well as linear tomography added no significant information [8].
  • Pharmacodynamic interaction between propofol and remifentanil regarding hypnosis, tolerance of laryngoscopy, bispectral index, and electroencephalographic approximate entropy [9].
  • RESULTS: Remifentanil alone had no appreciable effect on response to shaking and shouting or response to laryngoscopy [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Laryngoscopy


Biological context of Laryngoscopy


Anatomical context of Laryngoscopy

  • Vocal cord movement was analysed by laryngoscopy while the patients were awake and also during sleep induced by intravenous diazepam [20].
  • This suggests that propranolol even in doses adequate to produce significant slowing of HR in awake patients does not ensure protection against increases in HR and MAP associated with laryngoscopy and intubation of the trachea [21].
  • After preparation with a vasoconstrictor, the selected, well-lubricated ETT was advanced blindly into the nasopharynx, and intubation was completed under direct laryngoscopy [22].
  • It can be concluded that intranasally administered NTG effectively attenuates the pressor response to laryngoscopy and intubation in patients presenting for coronary artery by-pass surgery and that it is more effective and convenient method than intravenous lignocaine [23].
  • In two patients, one with Klippel-Feil syndrome and one with fibrous dysplasia of the maxilla, no part of the larynx could be visualized by direct laryngoscopy [24].

Associations of Laryngoscopy with chemical compounds

  • Effects of aerosolized lidocaine on circulatory responses to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation [2].
  • The effects of clonidine, a centrally acting alpha 2-adrenergic receptor agonist, on depth of fentanyl anesthesia and on cardiovascular response to laryngoscopy and intubation were studied [25].
  • The time to laryngoscopy and intubation did not differ significantly between succinylcholine (48 +/- 10 s) and vecuronium 0.4 mg/kg (57 +/- 13 s); however, both were significantly less than than with vecuronium 0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg (P less than 0.005) [26].
  • METHODS: In 26 patients, the end-tidal and corresponding arterial isoflurane concentrations needed to suppress eye opening to verbal command and motor response after trapezius squeeze, 50 Hz electric tetanic stimulation, laryngoscopy, skin incision, and tracheal intubation in 50% of all patients were determined [27].
  • The pressor response to laryngoscopy was significantly less marked in the esmolol group [28].

Gene context of Laryngoscopy

  • Lidocaine is frequently used in the treatment of hemodynamic changes following laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation during general anesthesia, and is metabolized by CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 isoenzymes in the liver [29].
  • Maximum expiratory and inspiratory flow-volume (MEFV, MIFV) curves, specific airway conductance (sGaw), and flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy were examined in 8 pediatric lung transplant recipients with vocal cord paralysis (VCP) [30].
  • RESULTS: Difficult laryngoscopy with a midline approach accounted for 6.5% (66 cases) before OELM and 1.97% (20 cases) after OELM [31].
  • RESULTS: With blood propofol concentrations increasing from 2 to 7.3 microg/ml, the C(50) of remifentanil decreased from 3.8 ng/ml to 0 ng/ml for laryngoscopy, from 4.4 ng/ml to 1.2 ng/ml for intubation, and from 6.3 ng/ml to 0.4 ng/ml for intraabdominal surgery [32].
  • Two cases are presented in which abnormal FDG PET preceded laryngoscopy or computed tomography in detection of tumor recurrences [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Laryngoscopy

  • The authors conclude that at a similar anesthetic depth, as assessed by the EEG shift into the lower frequency range (0.5-3 Hz), a markedly reduced fentanyl dose effectively prevented the hyperdynamic cardiovascular response to laryngoscopy and intubation in the group of patients premedicated with clonidine [25].
  • We conclude that the administration of fentanyl suppresses the hemodynamic responses to endotracheal intubation more than it does to laryngoscopy [34].
  • We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, and double-blind study to evaluate the efficacy of oral guanabenz, an alpha 2-adrenergic agonist, in attenuating the cardiovascular and catecholamine responses to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation in 30 normotensive (ASA physical status 1) patients undergoing elective surgery [35].
  • Oral administration of guanabenz before induction of anesthesia is a simple and effective method for attenuating the pressor and tachycardic responses to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation with the drug acting at least partly via inhibition of the increases in plasma catecholamines concentrations [35].
  • The goal of this study was to determine the propofol blood concentration at which 50% of patients did not respond to stimulation (Cp50) for laryngoscopy, intubation with a laryngoscope, insertion of a slotted oral-pharyngeal airway (Ovassapian airway), and intubation with a fiberscope when administered in conjunction with fentanyl [36].


  1. Laryngeal involvement in rheumatoid arthritis. A clinical, laryngoscopic, and computerized tomographic study. Lawry, G.V., Finerman, M.L., Hanafee, W.N., Mancuso, A.A., Fan, P.T., Bluestone, R. Arthritis Rheum. (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Effects of aerosolized lidocaine on circulatory responses to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. Venus, B., Polassani, V., Pham, C.G. Crit. Care Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  3. Adverse effects of opioid agonists and agonist-antagonists in anaesthesia. Bowdle, T.A. Drug safety : an international journal of medical toxicology and drug experience. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Reduction by fentanyl of the Cp50 values of propofol and hemodynamic responses to various noxious stimuli. Kazama, T., Ikeda, K., Morita, K. Anesthesiology (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Different mechanism of vocal cord paralysis between spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA 1 and SCA 3) and multiple system atrophy. Isozaki, E., Naito, R., Kanda, T., Mizutani, T., Hirai, S. J. Neurol. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Surgical treatment of respiratory complications associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Oelschlager, B.K., Pellegrini, C.A. Am. J. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Laryngeal aspergillosis following high dose inhaled fluticasone therapy for asthma. Fairfax, A.J., David, V., Douce, G. Thorax (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Computed tomographic evaluation of laryngeal neoplasms. Scott, M., Forsted, D.H., Rominger, C.J., Brennan, M. Radiology. (1981) [Pubmed]
  9. Pharmacodynamic interaction between propofol and remifentanil regarding hypnosis, tolerance of laryngoscopy, bispectral index, and electroencephalographic approximate entropy. Bouillon, T.W., Bruhn, J., Radulescu, L., Andresen, C., Shafer, T.J., Cohane, C., Shafer, S.L. Anesthesiology (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Comparison of propofol and thiopental for rapid anesthesia induction in infants. Schrum, S.F., Hannallah, R.S., Verghese, P.M., Welborn, L.G., Norden, J.M., Ruttiman, U. Anesth. Analg. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Effects of remifentanil and alfentanil on the cardiovascular responses to induction of anaesthesia and tracheal intubation in the elderly. Habib, A.S., Parker, J.L., Maguire, A.M., Rowbotham, D.J., Thompson, J.P. British journal of anaesthesia. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Roles of fentanyl and nitroglycerin in prevention of myocardial ischemia associated with laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation in patients undergoing operations of short duration. Fusciardi, J., Godet, G., Bernard, J.M., Bertrand, M., Kieffer, E., Viars, P. Anesth. Analg. (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. Induction of anaesthesia with sevoflurane and low-dose remifentanil: asystole following laryngoscopy. Wang, J., Winship, S., Russell, G. British journal of anaesthesia. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Haemodynamic disturbances during anaesthesia in a patient receiving calcium channel blockers. Gorven, A.M., Cooper, G.M., Prys-Roberts, C. British journal of anaesthesia. (1986) [Pubmed]
  15. Left ventricular performance monitored by radionuclide cardiography during induction of anesthesia. Chraemmer-Jørgensen, B., Høilund-Carlsen, P.F., Marving, J., Pedersen, J.F. Anesthesiology (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. Sevoflurane requirements for tracheal intubation with and without fentanyl. Katoh, T., Nakajima, Y., Moriwaki, G., Kobayashi, S., Suzuki, A., Iwamoto, T., Bito, H., Ikeda, K. British journal of anaesthesia. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Treatment of stress response to laryngoscopy and intubation with fentanyl. Dahlgren, N., Messeter, K. Anaesthesia. (1981) [Pubmed]
  18. Glycopyrrolate vs. atropine during anaesthesia for laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy. Grønnebech, H., Johansson, G., Smedebøl, M., Valentin, N. Acta anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. Lidocaine attenuates the intraocular pressure response to rapid intubation in children. Lerman, J., Kiskis, A.A. Canadian Anaesthetists' Society journal. (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. Early diagnosis and stage classification of vocal cord abductor paralysis in patients with multiple system atrophy. Isozaki, E., Naito, A., Horiguchi, S., Kawamura, R., Hayashida, T., Tanabe, H. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Effect of propranolol on circulatory responses to induction of diazepam-nitrous oxide anesthesia and to endotracheal intubation. McCammon, R.L., Hilgenberg, J.C., Stoelting, R.K. Anesth. Analg. (1981) [Pubmed]
  22. The influence of endotracheal tube tip design on nasal trauma during nasotracheal intubation: magill-tip versus murphy-tip. Lee, J.H., Kim, C.H., Bahk, J.H., Park, K.S. Anesth. Analg. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. The effect of intranasally administered nitroglycerin on the blood pressure response to laryngoscopy and intubation in patients undergoing coronary artery by-pass surgery. Dich-Nielsen, J., Hole, P., Lang-Jensen, T., Owen-Falkenberg, A., Skovsted, P. Acta anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. (1986) [Pubmed]
  24. Tracheal intubation using a new CCD camera-equipped device: a report of two cases with a difficult intubation. Sehata, H., Kohase, H., Takahashi, M., Miyamoto, T., Umino, M. Acta anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Effects of clonidine on narcotic requirements and hemodynamic response during induction of fentanyl anesthesia and endotracheal intubation. Ghignone, M., Quintin, L., Duke, P.C., Kehler, C.H., Calvillo, O. Anesthesiology (1986) [Pubmed]
  26. Pharmacodynamics of high-dose vecuronium in children during balanced anesthesia. Sloan, M.H., Lerman, J., Bissonnette, B. Anesthesiology (1991) [Pubmed]
  27. Anesthetic depth defined using multiple noxious stimuli during isoflurane/oxygen anesthesia. I. Motor reactions. Zbinden, A.M., Maggiorini, M., Petersen-Felix, S., Lauber, R., Thomson, D.A., Minder, C.E. Anesthesiology (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Esmolol hydrochloride for management of the cardiovascular stress responses to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. Vucevic, M., Purdy, G.M., Ellis, F.R. British journal of anaesthesia. (1992) [Pubmed]
  29. The effects of gender and menopause on serum lidocaine levels in smokers. Oztekin, S., Mavioglu, O., Elar, Z., Guven, H., Kalkan, S., Gurpinar, T. European journal of drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Airway function tests and vocal cord paralysis in lung transplant recipients. Zapletal, A., Kurland, G., Boas, S.R., Noyes, B.E., Greally, P., Faro, A., Armitage, J.M., Orenstein, D.M. Pediatr. Pulmonol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. Left-molar approach improves the laryngeal view in patients with difficult laryngoscopy. Yamamoto, K., Tsubokawa, T., Ohmura, S., Itoh, H., Kobayashi, T. Anesthesiology (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. Propofol reduces perioperative remifentanil requirements in a synergistic manner: response surface modeling of perioperative remifentanil-propofol interactions. Mertens, M.J., Olofsen, E., Engbers, F.H., Burm, A.G., Bovill, J.G., Vuyk, J. Anesthesiology (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Value of FDG PET in assessment of treatment response and surveillance in head-and-neck cancer patients after intensity modulated radiation treatment: a preliminary report. Yao, M., Graham, M.M., Smith, R.B., Dornfeld, K.J., Skwarchuk, M., Hoffman, H.T., Funk, G.F., Graham, S.M., Menda, Y., Buatti, J.M. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Fentanyl attenuates the hemodynamic response to endotracheal intubation more than the response to laryngoscopy. Adachi, Y.U., Satomoto, M., Higuchi, H., Watanabe, K. Anesth. Analg. (2002) [Pubmed]
  35. Attenuation of the cardiovascular and catecholamine responses to tracheal intubation with oral guanabenz. Mikawa, K., Maekawa, N., Hasegawa, M., Kaetsu, H., Goto, R., Yaku, H., Takao, Y., Nishina, K., Obara, H. Anesth. Analg. (1993) [Pubmed]
  36. Propofol concentration required for endotracheal intubation with a laryngoscope or fiberscope and its interaction with fentanyl. Kazama, T., Ikeda, K., Morita, K., Katoh, T., Kikura, M. Anesth. Analg. (1998) [Pubmed]
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