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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Bronchoscopy

  • The diagnostic value of the CD4 cell counts and the HIV p24 antigen were evaluated in a consecutive series of 105 HIV-infected patients experiencing 128 episodes of pulmonary symptoms which required bronchoscopy [1].
  • METHODS: Patients with chronic cough of non-asthmatic (n=33; postnasal drip/rhinitis in 6, gastroesophageal reflux in 5, bronchiectasis in 3, and idiopathic in 19) and asthmatic (n=14) causes and 15 healthy controls underwent fiberoptic bronchoscopy [2].
  • We propose the following management algorithm: Rigid bronchoscopy is performed first in case of asphyxia, a radiopaque FB, or association of unilaterally decreased breath sounds and obstructive emphysema [3].
  • Ten of 17 (59%) recipients with alpha1-AP deficiency who were followed for at least 1 yr after transplant with multiple surveillance and diagnostic bronchoscopies had at least one BALF containing unopposed NE, usually associated with the presence of > or = 10(5) colony forming units/ml BALF of aerobic bacteria [4].
  • It is concluded that the major effect of bronchoscopy on lung function is due to topical lignocaine in the airways, and in patients with lung disease (excluding asthma or a central obstructing carcinoma) the insertion of the bronchoscope causes little additional obstruction [5].

Psychiatry related information on Bronchoscopy

  • There was an increase in amnesia for the bronchoscopy with increasing age, but the most distinct difference between different age groups was that the amnesic action of flunitrazepam was evident earlier and persisted longer in patients of more than 60 yr [6].

High impact information on Bronchoscopy


Chemical compound and disease context of Bronchoscopy


Biological context of Bronchoscopy


Anatomical context of Bronchoscopy

  • We conclude that analysis of induced sputum reveals information qualitatively similar to that obtained by analysis of BW and BAL and that sputum induction is not only noninvasive and easily repeated but also yields samples more concentrated and richer in airway secretions than those obtained by bronchoscopy [22].
  • Bronchial epithelial cells were isolated from biopsy specimens obtained by means of bronchoscopy and cultured for 48 hours in serum- and hormone-free medium, with or without 10(-6) mol/L histamine [23].
  • In contrast, the asthmatic subjects showed significantly greater (p < 0.05) O3-induced increases in several inflammatory endpoints (percent neutrophils and total protein concentration) in BAL as compared with normal subjects who underwent bronchoscopy (n = 20) [24].
  • The concentrations of two antibiotics, amoxycillin and ciprofloxacin, were measured by microbiological assay in serum and in bronchial mucosa obtained at fibreoptic bronchoscopy in 38 patients undergoing diagnostic bronchoscopy for a range of respiratory symptoms [25].
  • METHODS: Immunostaining for MMP-3 and MMP-9 as well as for mast cells, eosinophils, and neutrophils was undertaken in acetone fixed and glycolmethacrylate embedded endobronchial biopsy specimens obtained by fibreoptic bronchoscopy under local anaesthesia [26].

Associations of Bronchoscopy with chemical compounds

  • Pulmonary involvement was notably absent, with no suggestive findings radiographically on gallium citrate Ga 67 scanning or on bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsy [27].
  • The bronchial penetration of lomefloxacin, a new difluorinated quinolone, was evaluated in 36 patients who underwent bronchoscopies for diagnostic purposes [28].
  • Topical lidocaine exaggerates laryngomalacia during flexible bronchoscopy [29].
  • Six patients with asthma (mean methacholine provocative concentration causing a 20% fall in FEV1 was 0.26 mg/ml) and six control subjects underwent fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar wash [30].
  • Sixteen subjects with asthma were phenotyped according to their response to inhaled antigen as single- or dual-phase responders, and then underwent bronchoscopy and segmental allergen bronchoprovocation [31].

Gene context of Bronchoscopy

  • Furthermore, when patients with BOS had their BALF analyzed from their last bronchoscopy before the development of BOS (Future BOS [FBOS] group) (n=20), their levels of IL-1Ra were also significantly elevated compared to healthy lung transplant recipients and patients with acute rejection (P<0.001 and P<0.05, respectively) [32].
  • Human bronchial epithelial cells were obtained under bronchoscopy from 21 patients with various respiratory diseases and incubated with or without IL-4, IL-10, or IL-13 [33].
  • Furthermore, tracheocytes freshly harvested by bronchoscopy stained positively for CXCR3 by immunofluorescence microscopy, and 68% of cytokeratin-positive tracheocytes (i.e., the epithelial cell population) were positive for CXCR3 by flow cytometry [34].
  • Before chemotherapy, multiple nonconsecutive sections of the bronchoscopy biopsy specimens of SCLC from 50 patients were analyzed immunohistochemically to detect Pgp and MRP expressions [35].
  • STUDY DESIGN: Using a bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) with flexible bronchoscopy procedure, this study determined the levels of interleukin (IL)-2, interferon (IFN)-gamma (TH1), and IL-4 (TH2) in the supernatant of BAL fluid as well as the BAL cellular profiles of patients with Mycoplasma pneumonia (n = 14) [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Bronchoscopy


  1. CD4 lymphocyte counts and serum p24 antigen of no diagnostic value in monitoring HIV-infected patients with pulmonary symptoms. Orholm, M., Nielsen, T.L., Nielsen, J.O., Lundgren, J.D. AIDS (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Nature of airway inflammation and remodeling in chronic cough. Niimi, A., Torrego, A., Nicholson, A.G., Cosio, B.G., Oates, T.B., Chung, K.F. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Indications for flexible versus rigid bronchoscopy in children with suspected foreign-body aspiration. Martinot, A., Closset, M., Marquette, C.H., Hue, V., Deschildre, A., Ramon, P., Remy, J., Leclerc, F. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Neutrophils, unopposed neutrophil elastase, and alpha1-antiprotease defenses following human lung transplantation. Meyer, K.C., Nunley, D.R., Dauber, J.H., Iacono, A.T., Keenan, R.J., Cornwell, R.D., Love, R.B. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Effect of fibreoptic bronchoscopy on pulmonary function. Peacock, A.J., Benson-Mitchell, R., Godfrey, R. Thorax (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Effect of age on amnesia and sedation induced by flunitrazepam during local anaesthesia for bronchoscopy. Korttila, K., Saarnivaara, L., Tarkkanen, J., Himberg, J.J., Hytönen, M. British journal of anaesthesia. (1978) [Pubmed]
  7. Histopathologic and molecular alterations in bronchial epithelium in habitual smokers of marijuana, cocaine, and/or tobacco. Barsky, S.H., Roth, M.D., Kleerup, E.C., Simmons, M., Tashkin, D.P. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Detection of K-ras oncogene mutations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid for lung cancer diagnosis. Mills, N.E., Fishman, C.L., Scholes, J., Anderson, S.E., Rom, W.N., Jacobson, D.R. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Atropine as premedication for bronchoscopy. Makker, H., Kishen, R., O'Driscoll, R. Lancet (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Aerosolized pentamidine: effect on diagnosis and presentation of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Jules-Elysee, K.M., Stover, D.E., Zaman, M.B., Bernard, E.M., White, D.A. Ann. Intern. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis without evidence of Pneumocystis carinii in asymptomatic patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Ognibene, F.P., Masur, H., Rogers, P., Travis, W.D., Suffredini, A.F., Feuerstein, I., Gill, V.J., Baird, B.F., Carrasquillo, J.A., Parrillo, J.E. Ann. Intern. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: Ga-67 citrate imaging. Woolfenden, J.M., Carrasquillo, J.A., Larson, S.M., Simmons, J.T., Masur, H., Smith, P.D., Shelhamer, J.H., Ognibene, F.P. Radiology. (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. Bronchial inflammation and the common cold: a comparison of atopic and non-atopic individuals. Trigg, C.J., Nicholson, K.G., Wang, J.H., Ireland, D.C., Jordan, S., Duddle, J.M., Hamilton, S., Davies, R.J. Clin. Exp. Allergy (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Concentrations of cefpodoxime in serum and bronchial mucosal biopsies. Baldwin, D.R., Wise, R., Andrews, J.M., Honeybourne, D. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Comparison of diazepam and flunitrazepam for sedation during local anaesthesia for bronchoscopy. Korttila, K., Saarnivaara, L., Tarkkanen, J., Himberg, J.J., Hytönen, M. British journal of anaesthesia. (1978) [Pubmed]
  16. Management of allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipients at risk for cytomegalovirus disease using a surveillance bronchoscopy and prolonged pre-emptive ganciclovir therapy. Reddy, V., Hao, Y., Lipton, J., Meharchand, J., Minden, M., Mazzulli, T., Chan, C., Messner, H.A. J. Clin. Virol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Erythromycin modulates IL-8 expression in normal and inflamed human bronchial epithelial cells. Takizawa, H., Desaki, M., Ohtoshi, T., Kawasaki, S., Kohyama, T., Sato, M., Tanaka, M., Kasama, T., Kobayashi, K., Nakajima, J., Ito, K. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Sputum induction as a research tool for sampling the airways of subjects with cystic fibrosis. Henig, N.R., Tonelli, M.R., Pier, M.V., Burns, J.L., Aitken, M.L. Thorax (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Pseudo-prolongation of the partial thromboplastin time. Smith, L.G., Kitchens, C.S. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  20. Effect of inhalation injury on fluid resuscitation requirements after thermal injury. Navar, P.D., Saffle, J.R., Warden, G.D. Am. J. Surg. (1985) [Pubmed]
  21. The effects of remifentanil on haemodynamic stability during rigid bronchoscopy. Prakash, N., McLeod, T., Gao Smith, F. Anaesthesia. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Comparison of samples collected by sputum induction and bronchoscopy from asthmatic and healthy subjects. Fahy, J.V., Wong, H., Liu, J., Boushey, H.A. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Bronchial epithelial cells of patients with asthma release chemoattractant factors for T lymphocytes. Bellini, A., Yoshimura, H., Vittori, E., Marini, M., Mattoli, S. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Greater ozone-induced inflammatory responses in subjects with asthma. Scannell, C., Chen, L., Aris, R.M., Tager, I., Christian, D., Ferrando, R., Welch, B., Kelly, T., Balmes, J.R. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. Evaluation of the penetration of ciprofloxacin and amoxycillin into the bronchial mucosa. Honeybourne, D., Andrews, J.M., Ashby, J.P., Lodwick, R., Wise, R. Thorax (1988) [Pubmed]
  26. Immunohistochemical localisation of the matrix metalloproteinases MMP-3 and MMP-9 within the airways in asthma. Dahlen, B., Shute, J., Howarth, P. Thorax (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Giant splenomegaly and refractory hypercalcemia due to extrapulmonary sarcoidosis. Successful treatment by splenectomy. Kruithoff, K.L., Gyetko, M.R., Scheiman, J.M. Arch. Intern. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. Penetration of lomefloxacin into bronchial secretions following single and multiple oral administration. Bergogne-Bérézin, E., Muller-Serieys, C., Kafé, H. Am. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  29. Topical lidocaine exaggerates laryngomalacia during flexible bronchoscopy. Nielson, D.W., Ku, P.L., Egger, M. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Cellular and biochemical characteristics of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in symptomatic nonallergic asthma. Mattoli, S., Mattoso, V.L., Soloperto, M., Allegra, L., Fasoli, A. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  31. Enhanced generation of helper T type 1 and 2 chemokines in allergen-induced asthma. Liu, L., Jarjour, N.N., Busse, W.W., Kelly, E.A. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist as a biomarker for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome in lung transplant recipients. Belperio, J.A., DiGiovine, B., Keane, M.P., Burdick, M.D., Ying Xue, Y., Ross, D.J., Lynch, J.P., Kunkel, S.L., Strieter, R.M. Transplantation (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Upregulatory effects of interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 but not interleukin-10 on granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor production by human bronchial epithelial cells. Nakamura, Y., Azuma, M., Okano, Y., Sano, T., Takahashi, T., Ohmoto, Y., Sone, S. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  34. The chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its splice variant are expressed in human airway epithelial cells. Kelsen, S.G., Aksoy, M.O., Yang, Y., Shahabuddin, S., Litvin, J., Safadi, F., Rogers, T.J. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. Relationship between chemotherapy response of small cell lung cancer and P-glycoprotein or multidrug resistance-related protein expression. Hsia, T.C., Lin, C.C., Wang, J.J., Ho, S.T., Kao, A. Lung (2002) [Pubmed]
  36. Levels of interleukin-2, interferon-gamma, and interleukin-4 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with Mycoplasma pneumonia: implication of tendency toward increased immunoglobulin E production. Koh, Y.Y., Park, Y., Lee, H.J., Kim, C.K. Pediatrics (2001) [Pubmed]
  37. Airway inflammation in nonasthmatic subjects with chronic cough. Boulet, L.P., Milot, J., Boutet, M., St Georges, F., Laviolette, M. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  38. In vivo modulation of glucocorticoid receptor mRNA by inhaled fluticasone propionate in bronchial mucosa and blood lymphocytes in subjects with mild asthma. Andersson, O., Cassel, T.N., Grönneberg, R., Brönnegård, M., Stierna, P., Nord, M. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  39. Paraneoplastic and oncologic profiles of patients seropositive for type 1 antineuronal nuclear autoantibodies. Lucchinetti, C.F., Kimmel, D.W., Lennon, V.A. Neurology (1998) [Pubmed]
  40. Effect of fiberoptic bronchoscopy on respiratory performance in patients with chronic airways obstruction. Salisbury, B.G., Metzger, L.F., Altose, M.D., Stanley, N.N., Cherniack, N.S. Thorax (1975) [Pubmed]
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