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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Pharmacies


Psychiatry related information on Pharmacies


High impact information on Pharmacies

  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Proportion of cisapride prescriptions or dispensing occurring during the same treatment period as a drug contraindicated at that time prescribed by the same physicians or dispensed by the same pharmacies [7].
  • The Glasgow program required supervised consumption of methadone in community pharmacies for the first year and experienced significantly fewer methadone-related deaths than Edinburgh in 1997 (17 vs 30 deaths; P<.0001) [8].
  • Retail pharmacies dispensed an estimated 4.4 million prescriptions for cholesterol-lowering drugs in 1978 [9].
  • FINDINGS: Insulin was prescribed at 48 (19) IU/day and mean insulin collected from pharmacies was 58 (25) IU/day, 25 (28%) of the 89 patients obtained less insulin than their prescribed dose (mean deficit 115 (68; range 9-246] insulin days/annum) [10].
  • Median price per pill of the two most commonly offered medications was 10% higher on the Internet (before shipping charges) than at Philadelphia pharmacies ($5.49 and $4.50 for sildenafil; $1.94 and $1.83 for finasteride) [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Pharmacies

  • The availability and cost of antibiotics for treating pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) were assessed in 17 drug-dispensing outlets in 5 districts of the Central Region, Ghana. The outlets included the dispensaries of 2 regional and 4 district hospitals, 4 privately-owned pharmacies and 7 chemical seller shops [12].
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data were collected using an online questionnaire, which subjects were directed to by advertisements in pharmacies, a UK national newspaper, on the internet and information on the Migraine Action Association website and newsletters [13].
  • We conclude that the community pharmacy is an easily accessible, well accepted, and effective site for cholesterol screenings; pharmacist interventions may help patients reduce their risk of coronary heart disease; and the pharmacy may benefit financially from an increase in dispensing lipid-lowering medications [14].
  • An assessment of 26 patients, taking theophylline for COAD or asthma, was undertaken in a Belfast Community pharmacy [15].
  • Because of the rarity and the poor prognosis of patients with PAH, as well as the requirement of close monitoring of bosentan (due to its potential of causing liver dysfunction and its teratogenic effects), bosentan is currently available only through a special access program and is distributed by certain selected pharmacies [16].

Biological context of Pharmacies

  • No pyrimethamine-resistant genotypes (n = 58) were detected in Kolle, a rural village with a community-supported dispensary and clinic where PS is used sparingly and no PS was available in pharmacies or markets [17].
  • Almost all pharmacies offer the same services: compounding, weight and blood pressure measurement, and cholesterol and glucose testing [18].
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Data were collected on each prescription for controlled drugs currently being dispensed by pharmacies to misusers, describing the drug, form, dose, source (general practice or hospital; and NHS or private), and numbers of dispensing pick ups a week [19].
  • In Sweden, all pharmacies are owned by the state and all prescriptions and over-the-counter (OTC) products, such as antifungals, are registered in a database, which offers unique possibilities to study the epidemiology of VVC/RVVC [20].

Anatomical context of Pharmacies


Associations of Pharmacies with chemical compounds

  • Diversion of methadone was minimized by requiring supervised consumption in community pharmacies [8].
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of contraindicted coprescribing and codispensings, in which cisapride and a contraindicated drug were prescribed or dispensed to the same patient for overlapping periods, and the proportion of contraindicated coprescribing by the same physicians and codispensing by the same pharmacies [7].
  • Actual payments (costs) were obtained from Blue Cross/Blue Shield and local pharmacies [22].
  • Prescriptions for ferrous sulfate, 300 mg, were filled with eight different preparations by 15 pharmacies [23].
  • Outcome measures were nonproblematic use (short term, within dosing guidelines), potentially problematic use (>120 days' use or more than twice the recommended dose), and pharmacy hopping (filling prescriptions for the same benzodiazepine in different pharmacies within 7 days) [24].

Gene context of Pharmacies

  • Co-prescription of cytochrome P450 2D6/3A4 inhibitor-substrate pairs in clinical practice. A retrospective analysis of data from Norwegian primary pharmacies [25].
  • APOM-project: managing change to the customer in community pharmacy practice [26].
  • However, probably without exception, most pharmaceutical products can cause adverse consequences of varying severity and frequency.In the last 10 years, many medicines that were originally prescription only have now become available over the counter (OTC), either from pharmacies or other general retail outlets [27].
  • Two male research assistants (one African American, one White) approached 33 of the area's pharmacies to buy syringes [28].
  • RESULTS: A total of 31 pharmacies of the research network (response rate 86.1%) provided medication histories of 234 current users of cerivastatin and 431 matched patients using any other HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Pharmacies


  1. The cost-effectiveness of syndromic management in pharmacies in Lima, Peru. Adams, E.J., Garcia, P.J., Garnett, G.P., Edmunds, W.J., Holmes, K.K. Sexually transmitted diseases. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Almotriptan versus rizatriptan in patients with migraine in Spain. Leira, R., Dualde, E., del Barrio, H., Machuca, M., López-Gil, A. Headache. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Costs of therapy for dermatophyte infections. Chren, M.M. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Educational strategies to promote evidence-based community pharmacy practice: a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT). Watson, M.C., Bond, C.M., Grimshaw, J.M., Mollison, J., Ludbrook, A., Walker, A.E. Family practice. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Educational intervention in pharmacy students' attitudes to HIV/AIDS and drug misuse. Sheridan, J., Bates, I.P., Webb, D.G., Barber, N.D. Medical education. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Outcomes of bupropion therapy for smoking cessation during routine clinical use. Paluck, E.C., McCormack, J.P., Ensom, M.H., Levine, M., Soon, J.A., Fielding, D.W. The Annals of pharmacotherapy. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Coprescribing and codispensing of cisapride and contraindicated drugs. Jones, J.K., Fife, D., Curkendall, S., Goehring, E., Guo, J.J., Shannon, M. JAMA (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Provision of methadone treatment in primary care medical practices: review of the Scottish experience and implications for US policy. Weinrich, M., Stuart, M. JAMA (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Prescribed use of cholesterol-lowering drugs in the United States, 1978 through 1988. Wysowski, D.K., Kennedy, D.L., Gross, T.P. JAMA (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Adherence to insulin treatment, glycaemic control, and ketoacidosis in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The DARTS/MEMO Collaboration. Diabetes Audit and Research in Tayside Scotland. Medicines Monitoring Unit. Morris, A.D., Boyle, D.I., McMahon, A.D., Greene, S.A., MacDonald, T.M., Newton, R.W. Lancet (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Internet availability of prescription pharmaceuticals to the public. Bloom, B.S., Iannacone, R.C. Ann. Intern. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. The availability and cost of antibiotics for treating PID in the Central Region of Ghana and implications for compliance with national treatment guidelines. Bosu, W.K., Mabey, D. International journal of STD & AIDS. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Migraine treatment strategies: the global Migraine And Zolmitriptan Evaluation (MAZE) survey--phase IV. MacGregor, E.A., Brandes, J., Gendolla, A., Giammarco, R. Current medical research and opinion. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Cholesterol screening in a community pharmacy. Madejski, R.M., Madejski, T.J. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association (Washington,D.C. : 1996) (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Plasma levels and therapeutic response: the relevance to community pharmacy. Maguire, T. European journal of drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Bosentan. Cheng, J.W. Heart disease (Hagerstown, Md.) (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Community pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine use and prevalence of resistant Plasmodium falciparum genotypes in Mali: a model for deterring resistance. Plowe, C.V., Djimde, A., Wellems, T.E., Diop, S., Kouriba, B., Doumbo, O.K. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Providing patient care in community pharmacies in Spain. Gastelurrutia, M.A., Faus, M.J., Fernández-Llimós, F. The Annals of pharmacotherapy. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Prescribing injectable and oral methadone to opiate addicts: results from the 1995 national postal survey of community pharmacies in England and Wales. Strang, J., Sheridan, J., Barber, N. BMJ (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Usage of antifungal drugs for therapy of genital Candida infections, purchased as over-the-counter products or by prescription: 2. Factors that may have influenced the marked changes in sales volumes during the 1990s. Mårdh, P.A., Wågström, J., Landgren, M., Holmén, J. Infectious diseases in obstetrics and gynecology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Multiple sclerosis in Malta in 1999: an update. Dean, G., Elian, M., de Bono, A.G., Asciak, R.P., Vella, N., Mifsud, V., Aquilina, J. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. A reappraisal of hepatitis B virus vaccination strategies using cost-effectiveness analysis. Bloom, B.S., Hillman, A.L., Fendrick, A.M., Schwartz, J.S. Ann. Intern. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. Fate of a ferrous sulfate prescription. Boggs, D.R. Am. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  24. Racial disparities in access after regulatory surveillance of benzodiazepines. Pearson, S.A., Soumerai, S., Mah, C., Zhang, F., Simoni-Wastila, L., Salzman, C., Cosler, L.E., Fanning, T., Gallagher, P., Ross-Degnan, D. Arch. Intern. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Co-prescription of cytochrome P450 2D6/3A4 inhibitor-substrate pairs in clinical practice. A retrospective analysis of data from Norwegian primary pharmacies. Molden, E., Garcia, B.H., Braathen, P., Eggen, A.E. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. APOM-project: managing change to the customer in community pharmacy practice. Mobach, M.P., van der Werf, J., Tromp, T.F. Pharmacy world & science : PWS. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Issues related to monitoring the safety of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines. Bond, C., Hannaford, P. Drug safety : an international journal of medical toxicology and drug experience. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Legal needle buying in St. Louis. Compton, W.M., Cottler, L.B., Decker, S.H., Mager, D., Stringfellow, R. American journal of public health. (1992) [Pubmed]
  29. Failure to continue lipid-lowering drug use following the withdrawal of cerivastatin. Mantel-Teeuwisse, A.K., Klungel, O.H., Egberts, T.C., Verschuren, W.M., Porsius, A.J., de Boer, A. Drug safety : an international journal of medical toxicology and drug experience. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Knowledge and beliefs about malaria on the Pacific coastal plain of Guatemala. Ruebush, T.K., Weller, S.C., Klein, R.E. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1992) [Pubmed]
  31. Usage patterns of over-the-counter phenazopyridine (pyridium). Shi, C.W., Asch, S.M., Fielder, E., Gelberg, L., Brook, R.H., Leake, B., Shapiro, M.F., Dowling, P., Nichol, M. Journal of general internal medicine : official journal of the Society for Research and Education in Primary Care Internal Medicine. (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. A controlled letter intervention to change prescribing behavior: results of a dual-targeted approach. Collins, T.M., Mott, D.A., Bigelow, W.E., Zimmerman, D.R. Health services research. (1997) [Pubmed]
  33. Stability of sterile aqueous epinephrine injections submitted by U.S. hospitals. Kirchhoefer, R.D., Thornton, L.K., Allgire, J.F. American journal of hospital pharmacy. (1986) [Pubmed]
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