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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Colposcopy

  • Forty-two women attending a colposcopy clinic for evaluation of abnormal cervical cytology and 13 normal controls were studied for the presence of lymphocyte proliferation (LP) cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses and serological reactivity to E7 peptides of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) [1].
  • SETTING: General practice, family planning, genitourinary medicine clinics, adolescent sexual health clinics, termination of pregnancy clinics, and women's services in hospitals (antenatal, colposcopy, gynaecology and infertility clinics) in two health authorities (Wirral and Portsmouth and South East Hampshire) [2].
  • Eight patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) were administered perilesional injections of human recombinant interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), and the response was evaluated by colposcopy and exfoliative cytology and then by histopathology [3].
  • These patients then agreed to undergo the following: colposcopy with directed biopsies; chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis screening; and serum CD4 level [4].
  • Phase II participants were 135 women from either the Colposcopy or HIV Outpatient Clinic. HPV DNA testing was performed using polymerase chain reaction and Roche reverse line blot hybridization [5].

High impact information on Colposcopy

  • INTERVENTION: Six main screening strategies--no screening, annual Papanicolaou smears, annual Papanicolaou smears after two negative smears obtained 6 months apart (recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), semiannual Papanicolaou smears, annual colposcopy, and semiannual colposcopy--were considered [6].
  • The vaginal and systemic effects of estriol were determined by colposcopy and serum luteinizing hormone, levels of which would decline in the presence of systemic estrogen [7].
  • High-risk HPV detection with Hybrid Capture II (HC II) was performed on a cervical scrape taken at the first visit before colposcopy (i.e. baseline smear) and during follow-up [8].
  • Patients underwent Pap smear, colposcopy, biopsy and cervical swab for detection of HPV by polymerase chain reaction [9].
  • Using liquid-based cytology specimens, p16(INK4a) immunocytochemical analysis has a higher PPV than reflex HC2 HPV testing for identifying CIN2/3 among patients with LSIL and might be useful for selecting patients with LSIL for colposcopy [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Colposcopy

  • One patient with Class IV smear failed to show any atypical transformation zone and cervicitis was proven on colposcopy guided biopsy following treatment with Flagyl [11].

Biological context of Colposcopy


Anatomical context of Colposcopy


Associations of Colposcopy with chemical compounds

  • To test this hypothesis, we reviewed the pathology of women at enrollment in the Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance/Low-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion Triage Study who were managed at enrollment with oncogenic HPV testing using Hybrid Capture 2 (Digene Corp., Gaithersburg, MD) or colposcopy [18].
  • Future studies of the effects of low-dose nonoxynol-9 on the female genital tract require highly controlled exposures, plus colposcopy with or without vaginal biopsy to define inflammation [19].
  • Women were randomized to beta-carotene or placebo, with cytology and colposcopy every 3 months [20].
  • Neopterin and beta-2-microglobulin levels were not elevated in colposcopy patients; neither were they related to severity of cervical neoplasia [21].
  • Colposcopy and application of acetic acid are essential for detection [22].

Gene context of Colposcopy

  • Mean concentrations of serum and plasma antioxidant nutrients were calculated within categories of HPV status (two times HPV negative, one time HPV positive, and two times HPV positive) and colposcopy [23].
  • We therefore explored the utility of p16INK4a immunostaining as a potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for cervical neoplasia using paraffin-embedded tissue blocks (punch biopsies and loop electrosurgical excision procedures) obtained from women referred to colposcopy during the enrollment phase of the Guanacaste Project (1993 to 1994) [24].
  • A task force named by the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP) conducted a literature review and discussed appropriate management [25].
  • Evaluation and followup of those patients with a history of DES exposure in utero or physical findings suggestive of vaginal adenosis should include vaginal Papanicolaou smears supplemented by colposcopy at 6-month to 1-year intervals [26].
  • As determined by colposcopy, cytological and histological examinations, and HPV typing (in situ hybridization, ISH), 8 IFN-treated patients (14%) and 11 placebo-treated patients (18%) showed complete response (CR) at the 8th week [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Colposcopy


  1. Cell-mediated immune responses to E7 peptides of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 are dependent on the HPV type infecting the cervix whereas serological reactivity is not type-specific. Kadish, A.S., Romney, S.L., Ledwidge, R., Tindle, R., Fernando, G.J., Zee, S.Y., Van Ranst, M.A., Burk, R.D. J. Gen. Virol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Opportunistic screening for genital chlamydial infection. I: acceptability of urine testing in primary and secondary healthcare settings. Pimenta, J.M., Catchpole, M., Rogers, P.A., Perkins, E., Jackson, N., Carlisle, C., Randall, S., Hopwood, J., Hewitt, G., Underhill, G., Mallinson, H., McLean, L., Gleave, T., Tobin, J., Harindra, V., Ghosh, A. Sexually transmitted infections. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Interferon gamma treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Iwasaka, T., Hayashi, Y., Yokoyama, M., Hachisuga, T., Sugimori, H. Gynecol. Oncol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Histology/cytology discrepancies in HIV-infected obstetric patients with normal pap smears. Robinson, W.R., Barnes, S.E., Adams, S., Perrin, M.S. Gynecol. Oncol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA in self-administered vaginal swabs as compared to cervical swabs. Palmisano, M.E., Gaffga, A.M., Daigle, J., Brinkman, J., Mire, K., Lenczyk, K., Martin, D.H., Hagensee, M.E. International journal of STD & AIDS. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. The costs, clinical benefits, and cost-effectiveness of screening for cervical cancer in HIV-infected women. Goldie, S.J., Weinstein, M.C., Kuntz, K.M., Freedberg, K.A. Ann. Intern. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Topical estrogen protects against SIV vaginal transmission without evidence of systemic effect. Smith, S.M., Mefford, M., Sodora, D., Klase, Z., Singh, M., Alexander, N., Hess, D., Marx, P.A. AIDS (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. High-risk HPV testing in women with borderline and mild dyskaryosis: long-term follow-up data and clinical relevance. Denise Zielinski, G., Snijders, P.J., Rozendaal, L., Voorhorst, F.J., Runsink, A.P., de Schipper, F.A., Meijer, C.J. J. Pathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I and severe neoplasia of the cervix in Jamaica. Strickler, H.D., Rattray, C., Escoffery, C., Manns, A., Schiffman, M.H., Brown, C., Cranston, B., Hanchard, B., Palefsky, J.M., Blattner, W.A. Int. J. Cancer (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. The predictive value of p16(INK4a) and hybrid capture 2 human papillomavirus testing for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Guo, M., Hu, L., Baliga, M., He, Z., Hughson, M.D. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Carcinoma-in-situ of the cerivix treated with colposcopy guided epithelial conization. Report of a 4-7 year follow-up study. Burrowes, J.T., Sengupta, B.S., Persaud, V. International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. (1976) [Pubmed]
  12. Microinvasive cervical carcinoma and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: biologic significance and clinical implications of 72-kDa metalloproteinase immunostaining. Garzetti, G.G., Ciavattini, A., Lucarini, G., Goteri, G., De Nictolis, M., Biagini, G. Gynecol. Oncol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Acetic acid improves identification of remnant islands of Barrett's epithelium after endoscopic therapy. Guelrud, M., Herrera, I. Gastrointest. Endosc. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Laser ablation of squamous cell carcinoma in situ of the anal canal. A case report. Brittain, P.C., Carlson, J.W., Hawley-Bowland, C. The Journal of reproductive medicine. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Urinary tract evaluation of diethylstilbestrol-exposed female progeny followed in a colposcopy clinic. Gallup, D.G., Altaffer, L.F., Castle, C.A. The Journal of reproductive medicine. (1984) [Pubmed]
  16. Genitoanal papillomavirus infection--a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma. Oriel, J.D. Seminars in dermatology. (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Comparison of the effects of different menstrual tampons on the vaginal epithelium: a randomised clinical trial. Raudrant, D., Landrivon, G., Frappart, L., De Haas, P., Champion, F., Ecochard, R. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Determinants of human papillomavirus load among women with histological cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3: dominant impact of surrounding low-grade lesions. Sherman, M.E., Wang, S.S., Wheeler, C.M., Rich, L., Gravitt, P.E., Tarone, R., Schiffman, M. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Nonoxynol-9 in lubricated condoms. Results of a study in female prostitutes. Ward, H., De La Court, A., Kitchen, V. Sexually transmitted diseases. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. A randomized, double blind, Phase III trial using oral beta-carotene supplementation for women with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Keefe, K.A., Schell, M.J., Brewer, C., McHale, M., Brewster, W., Chapman, J.A., Rose, G.S., McMeeken, D.S., Lagerberg, W., Peng, Y.M., Wilczynski, S.P., Anton-Culver, H., Meyskens, F.L., Berman, M.L. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia is not associated with elevated serum neopterin levels. Strickler, H.D., Escoffery, C., Rattray, C., Fuchs, D., Wachter, H., Manns, A., Schiffman, M.H., Cranston, B., Hanchard, B., Blattner, W.A. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Sexually transmitted diseases including genital papillomavirus infection in male sexual partners of women treated for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia III by conization. Bistoletti, P., Lidbrink, P. British journal of obstetrics and gynaecology. (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. Antioxidant nutrients: associations with persistent human papillomavirus infection. Giuliano, A.R., Papenfuss, M., Nour, M., Canfield, L.M., Schneider, A., Hatch, K. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Validation of p16INK4a as a marker of oncogenic human papillomavirus infection in cervical biopsies from a population-based cohort in Costa Rica. Wang, S.S., Trunk, M., Schiffman, M., Herrero, R., Sherman, M.E., Burk, R.D., Hildesheim, A., Bratti, M.C., Wright, T., Rodriguez, A.C., Chen, S., Reichert, A., von Knebel Doeberitz, C., Ridder, R., von Knebel Doeberitz, M. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. ASCCP patient management guidelines: Pap test specimen adequacy and quality indicators. Davey, D.D., Austin, R.M., Birdsong, G., Buck, H.W., Cox, J.T., Darragh, T.M., Elgert, P.A., Hanson, V., Henry, M.R., Waldman, J. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Value of screening procedures for the detection of vaginal adenosis. Gunning, J.E., Ostegard, D.R. Obstetrics and gynecology. (1976) [Pubmed]
  27. Systemic alpha-interferon (Wellferon) treatment of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) type 6, 11, 16, and 18 infections: double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Yliskoski, M., Syrjänen, K., Syrjänen, S., Saarikoski, S., Nethersell, A. Gynecol. Oncol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  28. HPV testing in primary screening of older women. Cuzick, J., Beverley, E., Ho, L., Terry, G., Sapper, H., Mielzynska, I., Lorincz, A., Chan, W.K., Krausz, T., Soutter, P. Br. J. Cancer (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Analgesia for colposcopy: double-masked, randomized comparison of ibuprofen and benzocaine gel. Church, L., Oliver, L., Dobie, S., Madigan, D., Ellsworth, A. Obstetrics and gynecology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Colposcopy for postmenopausal women. Kishi, Y., Inui, S., Sakamoto, Y., Mori, T. Gynecol. Oncol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  31. Periodic health examination, 1995 update: 1. Screening for human papillomavirus infection in asymptomatic women. Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination. Johnson, K. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne. (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. Significance of toluidine blue positive findings after speculum examination for sexual assault. Jones, J.S., Dunnuck, C., Rossman, L., Wynn, B.N., Nelson-Horan, C. The American journal of emergency medicine. (2004) [Pubmed]
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