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Chemical Compound Review

Ethoform     ethyl 4-aminobenzoate

Synonyms: Bensokain, Americaine, Anesthesin, Hurricaine, benzocaine, ...
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Disease relevance of Ethyl aminobenzoate


High impact information on Ethyl aminobenzoate

  • The differences in lipid solubility and molecular weight between lidocaine and benzocaine may explain the differences in their use-dependent blocking effects on sodium current [6].
  • We compared the blocking effects of the local anesthetics, lidocaine and benzocaine, on the sodium current, using single rat ventricular cells to obtain further information about the voltage dependence and kinetics of local anesthetic interaction with cardiac sodium channels [6].
  • In ventricular muscle, procaine often shifted the plateau to a more positive value and increased the force of contraction, whereas benzocaine shortened the action potential and decreased contractile force [7].
  • Under the same conditions in Purkinje fibers, procaine increased contractile force and benzocaine decreased it (but less than in the absence of TTX) [7].
  • Mutations of the PQIVID sequence of TRESK to PQIVIA, PQIVAD, or PQAVAD increasingly deteriorated the calcium-dependent activation in the listed order and correspondingly reduced the benzocaine sensitivity (a property discriminating activated channels from resting ones), when it was measured after the calcium signal in Xenopus oocytes [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of Ethyl aminobenzoate


Biological context of Ethyl aminobenzoate


Anatomical context of Ethyl aminobenzoate


Associations of Ethyl aminobenzoate with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Ethyl aminobenzoate

  • Of these markers, CD86 proved to be the most reliable since it detected all sensitizers, including benzocaine, a classical false negative in local lymph node assay (LLNA) but not irritants [27].
  • Benzocaine gave less weight loss than PPA (P less than 0.05 ANOVA) [3].
  • Putative binding sites for benzocaine on a human cardiac cloned channel (Kv1.5) [28].
  • The neutral local anaesthetic benzocaine, applied externally at a concentration in the bathing solution of 1 mM, had effects very similar to RAD 366 [29].
  • Duodenal but not jejunal benzocaine attenuated the effect of lipid on gastric volume, plasma CCK, and nausea during distension (135 +/- 38 and 216 +/- 40 ml, 4.6 +/- 0.6 pmol/l and not assessed, and 37 +/- 12 and 64 +/- 21 for lipid + duodenal benzocaine and lipid + jejunal benzocaine, respectively) and on pressures for sensations [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ethyl aminobenzoate


  1. Methemoglobinemia as a complication of 20% benzocaine spray for endoscopy. Collins, J.F. Gastroenterology (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Reported adverse event cases of methemoglobinemia associated with benzocaine products. Moore, T.J., Walsh, C.S., Cohen, M.R. Arch. Intern. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Clinical studies with phenylpropanolamine: a metaanalysis. Greenway, F.L. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Benzocaine anaphylaxis. Vu, A.T., Lockey, R.F. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Local anesthetics QX 572 and benzocaine act at separate sites on the batrachotoxin-activated sodium channel. Huang, L.M., Ehrenstein, G. J. Gen. Physiol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  6. Voltage- and use-dependent effects of lidocaine on sodium current in rat single ventricular cells. Sanchez-Chapula, J., Tsuda, Y., Josephson, I.R. Circ. Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  7. Local anesthetics and the role of sodium in the force development by canine ventricular muscle and purkinje fibers. Vassalle, M., Bhattacharyya, M. Circ. Res. (1980) [Pubmed]
  8. Targeting of calcineurin to an NFAT-like docking site is required for the calcium-dependent activation of the background K+ channel, TRESK. Czirják, G., Enyedi, P. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Methemoglobinemia: an unusual cause of postoperative cyanosis. Anderson, C.M., Woodside, K.J., Spencer, T.A., Hunter, G.C. J. Vasc. Surg. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials with non-prescription medications for the treatment of obesity. Greenway, F., Herber, D., Raum, W., Herber, D., Morales, S. Obes. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Drug-induced methemoglobinemia during thoracoscopic lung biopsy. Lorelli, D.R., Morris, D.E., Lewis, J.W. Ann. Thorac. Surg. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Allergic contact hypersensitivity to nickel, neomycin, ethylenediamine, and benzocaine. Relationships between age, sex, history of exposure, and reactivity to standard patch tests and use tests in a general population. Prystowsky, S.D., Allen, A.M., Smith, R.W., Nonomura, J.H., Odom, R.B., Akers, W.A. Archives of dermatology. (1979) [Pubmed]
  13. Results of routine patch testing of 542 patients in Saskatoon, Canada. Hogan, D.J., Hill, M., Lane, P.R. Contact Derm. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Binding of benzocaine in batrachotoxin-modified Na+ channels. State-dependent interactions. Wang, G.K., Wang, S.Y. J. Gen. Physiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Interaction between phorbol dibutyrate and anaesthetics on synaptic responses from olfactory cortex of rat. Austin, S., Scholfield, C.N. Neuropharmacology (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. The effect of local anesthetics on arterial lipid metabolism. Inhibition of sterol esterification in vitro. Bell, F.P. Atherosclerosis (1981) [Pubmed]
  17. Salt effects on an ion-molecule reaction--hydroxide-catalyzed hydrolysis of benzocaine. Al-Maaieh, A., Flanagan, D.R. Pharm. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Acute methemoglobinemia induced by topical benzocaine and lidocaine. O'Donohue, W.J., Moss, L.M., Angelillo, V.A. Arch. Intern. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  19. Long-lasting epidural sensory blockade by n-butyl p-aminobenzoate in the dog: neurotoxic or local anesthetic effect? Korsten, H.H., Hellebrekers, L.J., Grouls, R.J., Ackerman, E.W., van Zundert, A.A., van Herpen, H., Gruys, E. Anesthesiology (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. The effect of topical pharyngeal anesthesia on esophageal motility. Nasrallah, S.M., Hendrix, E. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  21. Solvent interaction with polydimethylsiloxane membranes and its effects on benzocaine solubility and diffusion. Gelotte, K.M., Lostritto, R.T. Pharm. Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  22. Topical analgesia for endometrial biopsy: a randomized controlled trial. Einarsson, J.I., Henao, G., Young, A.E. Obstetrics and gynecology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Evaluation of topical pharyngeal anaesthesia by benzocaine lozenge for upper endoscopy. Shaoul, R., Higaze, H., Lavy, A. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Reduction of Vmax by QX-314 and benzocaine in neonatal and adult canine cardiac Purkinje fibers. Spinelli, W., Danilo, P., Rosen, M.R. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1988) [Pubmed]
  25. In vitro skin absorption and metabolism of benzoic acid, p-aminobenzoic acid, and benzocaine in the hairless guinea pig. Nathan, D., Sakr, A., Lichtin, J.L., Bronaugh, R.L. Pharm. Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  26. Analgesic synergy between topical morphine and butamben in mice. Kolesnikov, Y.A., Cristea, M., Pasternak, G.W. Anesth. Analg. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. The cytokine-dependent MUTZ-3 cell line as an in vitro model for the screening of contact sensitizers. Azam, P., Peiffer, J.L., Chamousset, D., Tissier, M.H., Bonnet, P.A., Vian, L., Fabre, I., Ourlin, J.C. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Putative binding sites for benzocaine on a human cardiac cloned channel (Kv1.5). Caballero, R., Moreno, I., González, T., Valenzuela, C., Tamargo, J., Delpón, E. Cardiovasc. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. The effect of local anaesthetics on the components of the asymmetry current in the squid giant axon. Bekkers, J.M., Greeff, N.G., Keynes, R.D., Neumcke, B. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1984) [Pubmed]
  30. Modulation of gastric distension-induced sensations by small intestinal receptors. Feinle, C., Grundy, D., Fried, M. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. Effects of benzocaine on the kinetics of normal and batrachotoxin-modified Na channels in frog node of Ranvier. Schneider, M.F., Dubois, J.M. Biophys. J. (1986) [Pubmed]
  32. Persistent light reaction: induction in the guinea pig. Katsumura, Y., Tanaka, J., Ichikawa, H., Kato, S., Kobayashi, T., Horio, T. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  33. Topical benzocaine anaesthesia lacks analgesic effects in painful non-acid oesophagitis. Becker, K., Becker, C., Frieling, T., Häussinger, D. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. (1997) [Pubmed]
  34. An unusual case of hypoxia from benzocaine-induced methemoglobinemia. Slaughter, M.S., Gordon, P.J., Roberts, J.C., Pappas, P.S. Ann. Thorac. Surg. (1999) [Pubmed]
  35. A rapid HPLC method for the quantification of tyrothricin, menthol, and benzocaine in pharmaceutical formulations. Caraballo, I., Fernandez-Arevalo, M., Holgado, M.A., Vela, M.T., Rabasco, A.M. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. (1994) [Pubmed]
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