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Chemical Compound Review

OcuTropic     N-ethyl-3-hydroxy-2-phenyl-N- (pyridin-4...

Synonyms: Mydral, Mydriafair, Mydrum, Tropicacyl, Mydriaticum, ...
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Disease relevance of Mydriacyl


Psychiatry related information on Mydriacyl


High impact information on Mydriacyl


Chemical compound and disease context of Mydriacyl


Biological context of Mydriacyl


Anatomical context of Mydriacyl


Associations of Mydriacyl with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Mydriacyl

  • The results show that none of the enantiomers is able to significantly discriminate among the receptors studied and therefore do not support the proposal of tropicamide as an M4 (m4) selective agent [31].
  • Pupil dilation to tropicamide is not specific for Alzheimer disease [32].
  • After dilation with tropicamide 1%, lens opacities were graded using the Lens Opacities Classification System (LOCS) III [33].
  • To assess the ability of diabetic patients to drive after pupillary dilatation we studied 61 diabetic patients (18 IDDM, 43 NIDDM), mean age 54.98 years, before and 1 h after pupillary dilatation with 1% tropicamide [34].
  • Four Kodachrome 64 photographs per eye were taken with a Canon CR4 - 45NM camera through tropicamide-dilated pupils; slides were projected and systematically graded [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Mydriacyl

  • We administered a topical solution of 1% tropicamide to 30 adults to determine the course of pupillary dilation over time and whether adequate dilation could be attained within a routine clinic visit [36].
  • Pupillary dilation in response to dilute tropicamide eye drops has been proposed as a noninvasive diagnostic test to identify patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) [2].
  • Based on these results, the most effective cutoff point of 0.005% tropicamide for differential diagnosis was 114.5% of the average pupil dilation rate for 60 min [37].
  • In eyes predilated with tropicamide, iris massage caused marked pupillary constriction [38].
  • The effects of pupillary dilation (tropicamide 1%) on automated static threshold perimetry were studied in 18 normal subjects using the Humphrey field analyzer 30-2 and STATPAC programs [39].


  1. A potential noninvasive neurobiological test for Alzheimer's disease. Scinto, L.F., Daffner, K.R., Dressler, D., Ransil, B.I., Rentz, D., Weintraub, S., Mesulam, M., Potter, H. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Can tropicamide eye drop response differentiate patients with progressive supranuclear palsy and Alzheimer's disease from healthy control subjects? Litvan, I., FitzGibbon, E.J. Neurology (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Evaluation of potentiating effect of a drop of lignocaine on tropicamide-induced mydriasis. Ghose, S., Garodia, V.K., Sachdev, M.S., Kumar, H., Biswas, N.R., Pandey, R.M. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Tropicamide (1%): an effective cycloplegic agent for myopic children. Manny, R.E., Hussein, M., Scheiman, M., Kurtz, D., Niemann, K., Zinzer, K. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Increased mydriatic response to tropicamide is a sign of cholinergic hypersensitivity but not specific to late-onset sporadic type of Alzheimer's dementia. Kálmán, J., Kanka, A., Maglóczky, E., Szóke, A., Járdánházy, T., Janka, Z. Biol. Psychiatry (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Pupillary response to tropicamide in Japanese patients with alcoholic dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and vascular dementia. Higuchi, S., Matsushita, S., Hasegawa, Y., Muramatsu, T., Arai, H. Exp. Neurol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Pupillary response to topical tropicamide as a marker for Alzheimer's disease. Treloar, A.J., Assin, M., Macdonald, A.J. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Enhancement of the mydriatic response to tropicamide by bioadhesive polymers. Herrero-Vanrell, R., Fernandez-Carballido, A., Frutos, G., Cadórniga, R. Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics : the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Increased pupillary sensitivity to pilocarpine in depression. Sokolski, K.N., Demet, E.M. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 allele and pupillary response to tropicamide. Higuchi, S., Matsushita, S., Hasegawa, Y., Muramatsu, T., Arai, H., Hayashida, M. The American journal of psychiatry. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Accommodation and related risk factors associated with myopia progression and their interaction with treatment in COMET children. Gwiazda, J.E., Hyman, L., Norton, T.T., Hussein, M.E., Marsh-Tootle, W., Manny, R., Wang, Y., Everett, D. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Effect of ibopamine on aqueous humor production in normotensive humans. McLaren, J.W., Herman, D.C., Brubaker, R.F., Nau, C.B., Wayman, L.L., Ciarniello, M.G., Rosignoli, M.T., Dionisio, P. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Comparative study of the effects of 2% ibopamine, 10% phenylephrine, and 1% tropicamide on the anterior segment. Marchini, G., Babighian, S., Tosi, R., Perfetti, S., Bonomi, L. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. The effect of cycloplegia on measurement of the ocular components. Mutti, D.O., Zadnik, K., Egashira, S., Kish, L., Twelker, J.D., Adams, A.J. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Increased blood pressure following pupillary dilation with 2.5% phenylephrine hydrochloride in preterm infants. Lees, B.J., Cabal, L.A. Pediatrics (1981) [Pubmed]
  16. Why patients with Alzheimer's disease may show increased sensitivity to tropicamide eye drops: role of locus coeruleus. Hou, R.H., Samuels, E.R., Raisi, M., Langley, R.W., Szabadi, E., Bradshaw, C.M. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Evaluation of drugs in ointment for mydriasis and cycloplegia. Cable, M.K., Hendrickson, R.O., Hanna, C. Arch. Ophthalmol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  18. Intraocular pressure elevation after pupillary dilation in open angle glaucoma. Shaw, B.R., Lewis, R.A. Arch. Ophthalmol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. Counteracting the effects of mydriatics. Does it benefit the patient? Nelson, M.E., Orton, H.P. Arch. Ophthalmol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  20. Evaluation of mucoadhesive polymers in ocular drug delivery. II. Polymer-coated vesicles. Davies, N.M., Farr, S.J., Hadgraft, J., Kellaway, I.W. Pharm. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Pupil dilatation assay by tropicamide is modulated by apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 allele dosage in Alzheimer's disease. Arai, H., Terajima, M., Nakagawa, T., Higuchi, S., Mochizuki, H., Sasaki, H. Neuroreport (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Changes in chromatic and achromatic contrast sensitivities following tropicamide administration. Lee, E.J., Ong, G., Rajak, S., Casswell, A.G. Eye (London, England) (2007) [Pubmed]
  23. Can I drive after those drops, doctor? Watts, P., O'Duffy, D., Riddell, C., McCleod, S., Watson, S.L. Eye (London, England) (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Effects of pilocarpine and tropicamide on blood-aqueous barrier permeability in man. Mori, M., Araie, M., Sakurai, M., Oshika, T. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1992) [Pubmed]
  25. Interaction of neuromuscular blocking drugs with recombinant human m1-m5 muscarinic receptors expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Cembala, T.M., Sherwin, J.D., Tidmarsh, M.D., Appadu, B.L., Lambert, D.G. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Retinal circulation responses to systemic autonomic nerve stimulation. Lanigan, L.P., Clark, C.V., Hill, D.W. Eye (London, England) (1988) [Pubmed]
  27. Effects of mydriatic agents on neutrophil migration. Tsai, E., Till, G.O., Marak, G.E. Ophthalmic Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  28. Measurement of aqueous humor flow by fluorophotometry in the presence of a dilated pupil. Maus, T.L., Brubaker, R.F. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Does topical phenylephrine, tropicamide, or proparacaine affect macular blood flow? Robinson, F., Petrig, B.L., Sinclair, S.H., Riva, C.E., Grunwald, J.E. Ophthalmology (1985) [Pubmed]
  30. Comparison of tropicamide and cyclopentolate for cycloplegic refractions in myopic adult refractive surgery patients. Hofmeister, E.M., Kaupp, S.E., Schallhorn, S.C. Journal of cataract and refractive surgery. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Synthesis, characterization and pharmacological profile of tropicamide enantiomers. Dei, S., Bellucci, C., Ghelardini, C., Romanelli, M.N., Spampinato, S. Life Sci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. Pupil dilation to tropicamide is not specific for Alzheimer disease. Growdon, J.H., Graefe, K., Tennis, M., Hayden, D., Schoenfeld, D., Wray, S.H. Arch. Neurol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  33. Age-related nuclear lens opacities are associated with reduced growth before 1 year of age. Evans, J.R., Rauf, A., Aihie Sayer, A., Wormald, R.P., Cooper, C. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  34. Pupillary dilatation and driving in diabetic patients. Jude, E.B., Ryan, B., O'Leary, B.M., Gibson, J.M., Dodson, P.M. Diabet. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  35. Photographic detection of retinopathy in insulin-treated diabetes. A population study in the city of Tartu, Estonia. Kuiv, R., Tein, P., Algvere, P.V., Bäcklund, L.B., Holm, O. Acta ophthalmologica Scandinavica. (1997) [Pubmed]
  36. Pupillary dilation with tropicamide 1% for funduscopic screening. A study of duration of action. Steinmann, W.C., Millstein, M.E., Sinclair, S.H. Ann. Intern. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  37. Re-evaluation of tropicamide in the pupillary response test for Alzheimer's disease. Iijima, A., Haida, M., Ishikawa, N., Ueno, A., Minamitani, H., Shinohara, Y. Neurobiol. Aging (2003) [Pubmed]
  38. Inhibitors of surgically induced miosis. Duffin, R.M., Camras, C.B., Gardner, S.K., Pettit, T.H. Ophthalmology (1982) [Pubmed]
  39. Effects of pupillary dilation on automated perimetry in normal patients. Lindenmuth, K.A., Skuta, G.L., Rabbani, R., Musch, D.C., Bergstrom, T.J. Ophthalmology (1990) [Pubmed]
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