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Gene Review

Plaur  -  plasminogen activator, urokinase receptor

Mus musculus

Synonyms: Cd87, U-PAR, Urokinase plasminogen activator surface receptor, u-PAR, uPAR, ...
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Disease relevance of Plaur


Psychiatry related information on Plaur


High impact information on Plaur


Chemical compound and disease context of Plaur


Biological context of Plaur

  • This is the first demonstration that uPAR has a physiological role in fibrinolysis [15].
  • We show that fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) stimulates TTB cell migration and promotes polarization of uPAR at the leading edge of migrating cells [16].
  • Thus, in the absence of other challenging factors such as infection, injury, or other functional deficits, uPAR deficiency does not compromise fertility, development, or hemostasis [4].
  • In the present study, we provide experimental evidence that consolidates and further develops this model using data from a comprehensive alanine scanning mutagenesis of uPAR combined with low resolution distance constraints defined within the complex using chemical cross-linkers as molecular rulers [17].
  • These results demonstrate that the uPAR deficiency attenuates the severity of SM, probably by its important role in platelet kinetics and trapping [18].

Anatomical context of Plaur


Associations of Plaur with chemical compounds

  • The genomic sequences comprising exon 2 through 5 of the u-PAR gene were replaced by the neomycin resistance gene, resulting in inactivation of both u-PAR splice variants [9].
  • This complete alanine scanning of uPAR highlighted the involvement of 20 surface-exposed side chains in this interaction [17].
  • Breakdown of the blood-brain barrier, as evidenced by the leakage of Evans Blue, was similar in +/+ and uPAR(-/-) mice [18].
  • Consistent with an increased platelet production, platelets from uPAR-/- mice had a higher RNA content, as seen by Propidium Iodide (PI) labeling and FACS analysis [21].
  • In contrast, the blood pressure of urokinase receptor knockout (uPAR(-/-)) mice and the response of their isolated aortic rings to phenylephrine were normal, indicating that the effect of uPA on vascular contraction is independent of uPAR [22].

Physical interactions of Plaur


Regulatory relationships of Plaur

  • The mitogenic and chemotactic responses of bFGF were specifically inhibited in u-PAR-deficient cells or in wild-type SMC, cultured in the presence of antibodies to u-PAR [24].
  • These uPA-induced signaling events are not mediated by uPAR, but mediated by unidentified, lower-affinity receptors for the uPA kringle [25].
  • The urokinase-type plasminogen activator and its receptor (u-PAR) contribute to prostate cancer metastases by promoting extracellular matrix degradation and growth factor activation [26].

Other interactions of Plaur


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Plaur

  • There was no indication of loss of fetal animals based on the Mendelian pattern of transmission of the mutant uPAR gene. uPAR-/- mice carried no detectable uPAR in lung, spleen, and other tissues when measured both immunologically by Western blot analysis and functionally by ligand cross-linking analyses [4].
  • The kinetic rate constants for the interaction between pro-uPA and 244 purified uPAR mutants with single-site replacements were determined by surface plasmon resonance [17].
  • By in situ hybridization, uPAR mRNA transcripts were detected in renal tubules and interstitial cells of the obstructed uPAR+/+ kidneys [29].
  • Purification of the two mouse u-PAR variant proteins by diisopropylfluorophosphate-inactivated mouse u-PA-Sepharose affinity chromatography yielded two silver-stained bands when analysed by SDS/PAGE, corresponding in electrophoretic mobility to those seen by ligand-blotting analysis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)[30]
  • In those in which uPA, uPAR, and PAI-1 were all positive staining, stronger cancer invasiveness and higher mortality were found (P<0.05 vs. patients with all negative staining) [31].


  1. The geldanamycins are potent inhibitors of the hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor-met-urokinase plasminogen activator-plasmin proteolytic network. Webb, C.P., Hose, C.D., Koochekpour, S., Jeffers, M., Oskarsson, M., Sausville, E., Monks, A., Vande Woude, G.F. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Adenovirus-mediated delivery of antisense gene to urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor suppresses glioma invasion and tumor growth. Mohan, P.M., Chintala, S.K., Mohanam, S., Gladson, C.L., Kim, E.S., Gokaslan, Z.L., Lakka, S.S., Roth, J.A., Fang, B., Sawaya, R., Kyritsis, A.P., Rao, J.S. Cancer Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. A role for the plasminogen activator system in inflammation and neurodegeneration in the central nervous system during experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. East, E., Baker, D., Pryce, G., Lijnen, H.R., Cuzner, M.L., Gverić, D. Am. J. Pathol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. The receptor for urokinase-type plasminogen activator is not essential for mouse development or fertility. Bugge, T.H., Suh, T.T., Flick, M.J., Daugherty, C.C., Rømer, J., Solberg, H., Ellis, V., Danø, K., Degen, J.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. A direct link between expression of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, growth rate and oncogenic transformation in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Mazzieri, R., Furlan, F., D'Alessio, S., Zonari, E., Talotta, F., Verde, P., Blasi, F. Oncogene (2007) [Pubmed]
  6. CDC91L1 (PIG-U) is a newly discovered oncogene in human bladder cancer. Guo, Z., Linn, J.F., Wu, G., Anzick, S.L., Eisenberger, C.F., Halachmi, S., Cohen, Y., Fomenkov, A., Hoque, M.O., Okami, K., Steiner, G., Engles, J.M., Osada, M., Moon, C., Ratovitski, E., Trent, J.M., Meltzer, P.S., Westra, W.H., Kiemeney, L.A., Schoenberg, M.P., Sidransky, D., Trink, B. Nat. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Urokinase receptor (CD87) regulates leukocyte recruitment via beta 2 integrins in vivo. May, A.E., Kanse, S.M., Lund, L.R., Gisler, R.H., Imhof, B.A., Preissner, K.T. J. Exp. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Targeting urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor on human glioblastoma tumors with diphtheria toxin fusion protein DTAT. Vallera, D.A., Li, C., Jin, N., Panoskaltsis-Mortari, A., Hall, W.A. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Generation and characterization of urokinase receptor-deficient mice. Dewerchin, M., Nuffelen, A.V., Wallays, G., Bouché, A., Moons, L., Carmeliet, P., Mulligan, R.C., Collen, D. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Coordinated expression of the vitronectin receptor and the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor in metastatic melanoma cells. Nip, J., Rabbani, S.A., Shibata, H.R., Brodt, P. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Preclinical studies of bismuth-213 labeled plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 (PAI2) in a prostate cancer nude mouse xenograft model. Abbas Rizvi, S.M., Li, Y., Song, E.Y., Qu, C.F., Raja, C., Morgenstern, A., Apostolidis, C., Allen, B.J. Cancer Biol. Ther. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Hypoxia promotes lymph node metastasis in human melanoma xenografts by up-regulating the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor. Rofstad, E.K., Rasmussen, H., Galappathi, K., Mathiesen, B., Nilsen, K., Graff, B.A. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Effects of blocking urokinase receptor signaling by antisense oligonucleotides in a mouse model of experimental prostate cancer bone metastases. Margheri, F., D'Alessio, S., Serratí, S., Pucci, M., Annunziato, F., Cosmi, L., Liotta, F., Angeli, R., Angelucci, A., Gravina, G.L., Rucci, N., Bologna, M., Teti, A., Monia, B., Fibbi, G., Del Rosso, M. Gene Ther. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor plays a role in neutrophil migration during lipopolysaccharide-induced peritoneal inflammation but not during Escherichia coli-induced peritonitis. Renckens, R., Roelofs, J.J., Florquin, S., Poll, T. J. Infect. Dis. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator is effective in fibrin clearance in the absence of its receptor or tissue-type plasminogen activator. Bugge, T.H., Flick, M.J., Danton, M.J., Daugherty, C.C., Romer, J., Dano, K., Carmeliet, P., Collen, D., Degen, J.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. FGF-2 stimulates migration of Kaposi's sarcoma-like vascular cells by HGF-dependent relocalization of the urokinase receptor. Cavallaro, U., Wu, Z., Di Palo, A., Montesano, R., Pepper, M.S., Maier, J.A., Soria, M.R. FASEB J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Characterization of the functional epitope on the urokinase receptor. Complete alanine scanning mutagenesis supplemented by chemical cross-linking. Gårdsvoll, H., Gilquin, B., Le Du, M.H., Ménèz, A., Jørgensen, T.J., Ploug, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Delayed mortality and attenuated thrombocytopenia associated with severe malaria in urokinase- and urokinase receptor-deficient mice. Piguet, P.F., Da Laperrousaz, C., Vesin, C., Tacchini-Cottier, F., Senaldi, G., Grau, G.E. Infect. Immun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Proteinase expression in early mouse embryos is regulated by leukaemia inhibitory factor and epidermal growth factor. Harvey, M.B., Leco, K.J., Arcellana-Panlilio, M.Y., Zhang, X., Edwards, D.R., Schultz, G.A. Development (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Mitogenic signaling of urokinase receptor-deficient kidney fibroblasts: actions of an alternative urokinase receptor and LDL receptor-related protein. Zhang, G., Cai, X., López-Guisa, J.M., Collins, S.J., Eddy, A.A. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Role of plasminogen activators and urokinase receptor in platelet kinetics. Piguet, P.F., Vesin, C., Da Laperousaz, C., Rochat, A. Hematol. J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Binding of urokinase to low density lipoprotein-related receptor (LRP) regulates vascular smooth muscle cell contraction. Nassar, T., Haj-Yehia, A., Akkawi, S., Kuo, A., Bdeir, K., Mazar, A., Cines, D.B., Higazi, A.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Receptor-independent role of urokinase-type plasminogen activator in pericellular plasmin and matrix metalloproteinase proteolysis during vascular wound healing in mice. Carmeliet, P., Moons, L., Dewerchin, M., Rosenberg, S., Herbert, J.M., Lupu, F., Collen, D. J. Cell Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Urokinase and tissue-type plasminogen activator are required for the mitogenic and chemotactic effects of bovine fibroblast growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor-BB for vascular smooth muscle cells. Herbert, J.M., Lamarche, I., Carmeliet, P. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  25. Direct interaction of the kringle domain of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and integrin alpha v beta 3 induces signal transduction and enhances plasminogen activation. Tarui, T., Akakura, N., Majumdar, M., Andronicos, N., Takagi, J., Mazar, A.P., Bdeir, K., Kuo, A., Yarovoi, S.V., Cines, D.B., Takada, Y. Thromb. Haemost. (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. A urokinase-derived peptide (A6) increases survival of mice bearing orthotopically grown prostate cancer and reduces lymph node metastasis. Boyd, D.D., Kim, S.J., Wang, H., Jones, T.R., Gallick, G.E. Am. J. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Plasminogen mediates the pathological effects of urokinase-type plasminogen activator overexpression. Bolon, I., Zhou, H.M., Charron, Y., Wohlwend, A., Vassalli, J.D. Am. J. Pathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Evidence for similar expression of protein C inhibitor and the urokinase-type plasminogen activator system during mouse testis development. Odet, F., Guyot, R., Leduque, P., Le Magueresse-Battistoni, B. Endocrinology (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Urokinase receptor deficiency accelerates renal fibrosis in obstructive nephropathy. Zhang, G., Kim, H., Cai, X., López-Guisa, J.M., Alpers, C.E., Liu, Y., Carmeliet, P., Eddy, A.A. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Identification and characterization of the murine cell surface receptor for the urokinase-type plasminogen activator. Solberg, H., Løber, D., Eriksen, J., Ploug, M., Rønne, E., Behrendt, N., Danø, K., Høyer-Hansen, G. Eur. J. Biochem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  31. Invasion and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma in relation to urokinase-type plasminogen activator, its receptor and inhibitor. Zheng, Q., Tang, Z.Y., Xue, Q., Shi, D.R., Song, H.Y., Tang, H.B. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. (2000) [Pubmed]
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