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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
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Disease relevance of Yogurt

  • Ingestion of yogurt also resulted in fewer reports of diarrhea or flatulence than did a similar quantity of lactose ingested in milk or a water solution [1].
  • In conclusion, in addition to fermentation by yoghurt bacteria, calcium in milk products strongly enhanced the resistance to salmonella infection by lowering luminal cytolytic activity or diminishing the availability of iron for pathogen growth, or both [2].
  • In this study the effects of a yogurt (500 mL/d for 3 wk) enriched with Bifidobacterium longum and 5 g lactulose/L (A) on the fecal bacterial flora and various risk indexes for colon carcinogenesis were tested in 12 healthy volunteers and compared with a conventional yogurt (B) [3].
  • The effects of yogurt containing viable Lactobacillus strain GG (L. GG) and/or fiber supplements on fecal enzyme activities (beta-glucuronidase, nitroreductase, beta-glucosidase, glycocholic acid hydrolase, urease) and on bacterial metabolites in urine (phenol, p-cresol) were studied in 64 females, 20-41 y old [4].
  • The process of acetaldehyde formation by the yogurt bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus is described in this paper [5].

High impact information on Yogurt

  • We used breath hydrogen measurements to determine whether lactase-deficient subjects absorbed lactose in yogurt better than lactose in milk [1].
  • This autodigesting feature makes yogurt a well-tolerated source of milk for lactase-deficient persons and may explain the widespread consumption of yogurt by lactase-deficient population groups [1].
  • Probiotic effects on experimental graft-versus-host disease: let them eat yogurt [6].
  • Similarly, those who consumed yogurt at least once every other day had a lower serum uric acid level than did those who did not consume yogurt (multivariate difference -0.26 [95% CI -0.41, -0.12]; P < 0.001 for trend) [7].
  • In yoghurt fed rats, only minor infection induced changes in luminal parameters were noticed [2].

Chemical compound and disease context of Yogurt


Biological context of Yogurt

  • In children, mechanisms other than enhanced lactose absorption from yogurt may lead to changes in the kinetics of hydrogen production, which in turn are associated with improved tolerance [12].
  • The extent of bioavailability, measured as the total area under the plasma concentration-time curve and 24-hour urinary excretion of ciprofloxacin, was reduced by 30% to 36% by milk and yogurt (p less than 0.05) [13].
  • Furthermore, pasteurization of yogurt eliminated the enhanced digestion of lactose, reduced the inherent lactase activity of the yogurt by 10-fold and reduced cell counts by 100-fold [14].
  • Gastrointestinal survival of culture organisms was demonstrated in vivo up to 3 h after feeding, and thus, the viable cells resulted in more efficient hydrolysis which favored lactose digestion in natural yogurt [15].
  • Intestinal absorption of calcium from yogurt in lactase-deficient subjects [16].

Anatomical context of Yogurt


Associations of Yogurt with chemical compounds

  • Ingestion of 18 g of lactose in yogurt resulted in only about one third as much hydrogen excretion as a similar load of lactose in milk or water, indicating a much better absorption of lactose in yogurt [1].
  • Three groups of male Japanese rabbits weighing about 2.7 kg each were given experimental diets consisting of high cholesterol food and fluid skim milk, yogurt, or water, and were bled every 4 wk to measure serum lipids [22].
  • Many investigators have studied the therapeutic and preventive effects of yogurt and lactic acid bacteria, which are commonly used in yogurt production, on diseases such as cancer, infection, gastrointestinal disorders, and asthma [23].
  • Individual snacks composed of either a milk chocolate bar, granola bar, chocolate milk, peanut butter cups, yogurt, or potato chips produced similar glucose response curves [24].
  • Frequent consumption of milk, yogurt, cold breakfast cereals, peppers, and cruciferous vegetables and intakes of dietary folate and riboflavin but not vitamins B-12 and B-6 are inversely associated with serum total homocysteine concentrations in the US population [25].

Gene context of Yogurt

  • We demonstrated that yoghurt may exert antitumour activity by a decrease in the inflammatory immune response mediated by IgA(+) increase, apoptosis induction and IL-10 release [26].
  • Yoghurt increased the number of apoptotic cells and induced IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha cytokine release, their production being regulated by an increase in IL-10 (P<0.001) [26].
  • Lactose in yogurt with live bacteria is better tolerated than lactose in other dairy foods, partly because of the activity of microbial beta-galactosidase (beta-gal), which digests lactose in vivo [27].
  • RESULTS: We found a significant reduction (19%; P < 0.001) in the occurrence of nasal PPB in the group who consumed the probiotic drink but not in the group who consumed yogurt [28].
  • The addition of FBP to yogurt decreased (P < 0.05) folate bioaccessibility [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Yogurt

  • Although no significant difference between the yogurt and control groups in the concentration of serum lipids was observed, total cholesterol concentrations in the aorta were significantly lower in both the skim milk and the yogurt groups than in the control group [22].
  • Detection of yogurt lactic acid bacteria in total fecal DNA by bacterial culture and PCR assay was consistently negative [19].
  • A bienzyme amperometric graphite-Teflon composite biosensor, in which lactate oxidase (LOD) and peroxidase, together with the mediator ferrocene, are incorporated into the electrode matrix, was developed for the determination of L-lactate in food samples such as wine and yogurt by using both batch- and flow-injection modes [30].
  • Concentrations in milk of penicillin, streptopenicillin, and oxytetracycline given by intramuscular injection made it unsuitable for yogurt production for 24 h [31].
  • Twenty-seven asymptomatic women positive for H. pylori on gastric biopsy and 13C urea breath test were recruited, and administered 175 ml of the yogurt three times a day for 30 days [32].


  1. Yogurt--an autodigesting source of lactose. Kolars, J.C., Levitt, M.D., Aouji, M., Savaiano, D.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Calcium in milk and fermentation by yoghurt bacteria increase the resistance of rats to Salmonella infection. Bovee-Oudenhoven, I., Termont, D., Dekker, R., Van der Meer, R. Gut (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Does yogurt enriched with Bifidobacterium longum affect colonic microbiology and fecal metabolites in health subjects? Bartram, H.P., Scheppach, W., Gerlach, S., Ruckdeschel, G., Kelber, E., Kasper, H. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Lactobacillus strain GG supplementation decreases colonic hydrolytic and reductive enzyme activities in healthy female adults. Ling, W.H., Korpela, R., Mykkänen, H., Salminen, S., Hänninen, O. J. Nutr. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Metabolic engineering of acetaldehyde production by Streptococcus thermophilus. Chaves, A.C., Fernandez, M., Lerayer, A.L., Mierau, I., Kleerebezem, M., Hugenholtz, J. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Probiotic effects on experimental graft-versus-host disease: let them eat yogurt. Gerbitz, A., Schultz, M., Wilke, A., Linde, H.J., Schölmerich, J., Andreesen, R., Holler, E. Blood (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Intake of purine-rich foods, protein, and dairy products and relationship to serum levels of uric acid: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Choi, H.K., Liu, S., Curhan, G. Arthritis Rheum. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Consumption of Bifidobacterium lactis LKM512 yogurt reduces gut mutagenicity by increasing gut polyamine contents in healthy adult subjects. Matsumoto, M., Benno, Y. Mutat. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Effect of Lactobacillus GG yoghurt in prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhoea. Siitonen, S., Vapaatalo, H., Salminen, S., Gordin, A., Saxelin, M., Wikberg, R., Kirkkola, A.L. Ann. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Yoghurt enriched with Lactobacillus acidophilus does not lower blood lipids in healthy men and women with normal to borderline high serum cholesterol levels. de Roos, N.M., Schouten, G., Katan, M.B. European journal of clinical nutrition. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Lactate acid inhibition of Salmonella typhimurium in yogurt. Rubin, H.E., Nerad, T., Vaughan, F. J. Dairy Sci. (1982) [Pubmed]
  12. Effect of yogurt on symptoms and kinetics of hydrogen production in lactose-malabsorbing children. Shermak, M.A., Saavedra, J.M., Jackson, T.L., Huang, S.S., Bayless, T.M., Perman, J.A. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Interference of dairy products with the absorption of ciprofloxacin. Neuvonen, P.J., Kivistö, K.T., Lehto, P. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Lactose malabsorption from yogurt, pasteurized yogurt, sweet acidophilus milk, and cultured milk in lactase-deficient individuals. Savaiano, D.A., AbouElAnouar, A., Smith, D.E., Levitt, M.D. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1984) [Pubmed]
  15. Influence of viable yogurt microflora on digestion of lactose by the rat. Goodenough, E.R., Kleyn, D.H. J. Dairy Sci. (1976) [Pubmed]
  16. Intestinal absorption of calcium from yogurt in lactase-deficient subjects. Wynckel, A., Jaisser, F., Wong, T., Drüeke, T., Chanard, J. Reprod. Nutr. Dev. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Lactose digestion by yogurt beta-galactosidase: influence of pH and microbial cell integrity. Martini, M.C., Bollweg, G.L., Levitt, M.D., Savaiano, D.A. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. Viable starter culture, beta-galactosidase activity, and lactose in duodenum after yogurt ingestion in lactase-deficient humans. Pochart, P., Dewit, O., Desjeux, J.F., Bourlioux, P. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. Scarce evidence of yogurt lactic acid bacteria in human feces after daily yogurt consumption by healthy volunteers. del Campo, R., Bravo, D., Cantón, R., Ruiz-Garbajosa, P., García-Albiach, R., Montesi-Libois, A., Yuste, F.J., Abraira, V., Baquero, F. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Feeding diets containing high levels of milk products or cellulose decrease urease activity and ammonia production in rat intestine. Kim, K.I., Lee, W.S., Benevenga, N.J. J. Nutr. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Food anaphylaxis following ingestion of carmine. Beaudouin, E., Kanny, G., Lambert, H., Fremont, S., Moneret-Vautrin, D.A. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Effect of skim milk and yogurt on serum lipids and development of sudanophilic lesions in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Kiyosawa, H., Sugawara, C., Sugawara, N., Miyake, H. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1984) [Pubmed]
  23. Immunologic effects of yogurt. Meydani, S.N., Ha, W.K. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Postprandial glucose and insulin responses to various snacks of equivalent carbohydrate content in normal subjects. Shively, C.A., Apgar, J.L., Tarka, S.M. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1986) [Pubmed]
  25. Frequent consumption of milk, yogurt, cold breakfast cereals, peppers, and cruciferous vegetables and intakes of dietary folate and riboflavin but not vitamins B-12 and B-6 are inversely associated with serum total homocysteine concentrations in the US population. Ganji, V., Kafai, M.R. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Role of yoghurt in the prevention of colon cancer. Perdigón, G., de Moreno de LeBlanc, A., Valdez, J., Rachid, M. European journal of clinical nutrition. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Strains and species of lactic acid bacteria in fermented milks (yogurts): effect on in vivo lactose digestion. Martini, M.C., Lerebours, E.C., Lin, W.J., Harlander, S.K., Berrada, N.M., Antoine, J.M., Savaiano, D.A. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1991) [Pubmed]
  28. Ingested probiotics reduce nasal colonization with pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and beta-hemolytic streptococci). Glück, U., Gebbers, J.O. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Bioaccessibility of folic acid and (6S)-5-methyltetrahydrofolate decreases after the addition of folate-binding protein to yogurt as studied in a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model. Arkbåge, K., Verwei, M., Havenaar, R., Witthöft, C. J. Nutr. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Graphite-Teflon composite bienzyme electrodes for the determination of L-lactate: application to food samples. Serra, B., Reviejo, A.J., Parrado, C., Pingarrón, J.M. Biosensors & bioelectronics. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Excretion rates of antibiotics in milk of sheep and their effect on yogurt production. Anifantakis, E.M. J. Dairy Sci. (1982) [Pubmed]
  32. Lack of therapeutic effect of a specially designed yogurt for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection. Wendakoon, C.N., Thomson, A.B., Ozimek, L. Digestion (2002) [Pubmed]
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