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Chemical Compound Review

Carmine     3,5,6,8-tetrahydroxy-1- methyl-9,10-dioxo-7...

Synonyms: CARMINIC ACID, CHEMBL1366408, AC1Q5ULO, NSC326224, SBB012606, ...
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Disease relevance of Carmine


High impact information on Carmine

  • RESULTS: Positive skin test responses to carmine (41.7%), cochineal (29.2%), and carminic acid (4.2%) were observed [6].
  • Five subjects underwent specific inhalation challenges: 2 workers had early asthma responses to carmine and cochineal challenges, and the remaining subjects did not have suggestive peak expiratory flow recordings [6].
  • Adhesive domains of blastomeres were discovered by using carmine dye particles which attached primarily in the region of blastomere cleavage furrows [7].
  • Moreover, most adhesive flat lamellar formations (ruffles) with microvilli at their ends were discovered in the furrow region, particularly in its apical part (in the sites of intercellular contact formation and carmine absorption) [7].
  • Abnormal astrocytes of the Alzheimer II type were diffusely distributed in the brain and contained no intranuclear glycogen which stained positive with the carmine stain [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of Carmine

  • In the experiments of vital staining with lithium carmine, Fesin phagocytosis, carrageenin granuloma formation, in vivo culture by intraperitoneal implantation of diffusion chambers, and subculture, cytological changes of histiocytes or macrophages and fibroblasts, as well as their transformation, were investigated [9].
  • The content of carmine dye in the granuloma tissue in alloxan diabetic mice was observed to be significantly low during the first week after adjuvant injection when compared with normal mice, indicating poor development of blood vessels in the diabetic state [10].
  • Melanoma colonies stained with Masson's Trichrome, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), periodic acid-Schiff, Best's carmine, Page-Green method for inclusion bodies, and Snook's reticulum revealed cellular and extracellular components by LM [11].

Biological context of Carmine


Anatomical context of Carmine

  • OM administration increased transit of a carmine dye bolus from 58% of the total length of the upper GI tract in untreated age-matched controls to as high as 74% when tested at day 28 post-OM [17].
  • Using carmine as 'a precious agent' to stain spinal cord hardened with dilute chromic acid, he described the characteristic myelin loss with relative but not absolute axonal preservation [18].
  • Carmine red/gelatin infusion revealed a 50% higher density of blood vessels as compared to denervated ligaments [19].
  • In a separate cohort of 16 rabbits, vascular volumes of the injured ligaments were measured by infusion of a carmine red/gelatin solution [19].
  • Kupffer cells could be detected after vital staining with carmine [20].

Associations of Carmine with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Carmine

  • Defective expression of the mu3 subunit of the AP-3 adaptor complex in the Drosophila pigmentation mutant carmine [24].
  • The induction of visible mutations by MR is observed at only a limited number of genes, such as singed bristle (sn), raspberry eye colour (ras), yellow body colour (y) and a carmine eye colour (car) [25].
  • This was shown by the reduction in the tumour density of carmine in the vascular casts, as well as reduced blood-vessel density visualized by rat anti-mouse CD31 immunohistology [26].
  • Several of these bands were variably recognized by our three patients' sera, and this reactivity was inhibited by carmine [27].
  • Parathyroid surgery: the role of chief cell intracellular fat staining with osmium carmine in the intraoperative management of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Carmine


  1. Campari-Orange anaphylaxis due to carmine allergy. Kägi, M.K., Wüthrich, B., Johansson, S.G. Lancet (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis secondary to carmine. Dietemann-Molard, A., Braun, J.J., Sohier, B., Pauli, G. Lancet (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Assessment of simple methods of measuring intestinal transit times in children with gastroenteritis. Higgs, R.H., Ellis-Pegler, R.B., Lambert, H.P. Gut (1975) [Pubmed]
  4. Food anaphylaxis following ingestion of carmine. Beaudouin, E., Kanny, G., Lambert, H., Fremont, S., Moneret-Vautrin, D.A. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Occupational asthma to carmine in a butcher. Ferrer, A., Marco, F.M., Andreu, C., Sempere, J.M. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Carmine (E-120)-induced occupational asthma revisited. Tabar-Purroy, A.I., Alvarez-Puebla, M.J., Acero-Sainz, S., García-Figueroa, B.E., Echechipía-Madoz, S., Olaguibel-Rivera, J.M., Quirce-Gancedo, S. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Organization of the surface and adhesive properties of cleavage furrows in loach (Misgurnus fossilis) eggs. Bozhkova, V.P., Palmback, L.R., Khariton VYu, n.u.l.l., Chaylakhyan, L.M. Exp. Cell Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  8. Hemochromatosis associated with brain lesions--a disorder of trace-metal binding proteins and/or polymers? Miyasaki, K., Murao, S., Koizumi, N. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  9. Cytological characters, transformation, and ontogenesis of dermal histiocytes and fibroblasts of rats. Takahashi, K., Sakuma, H., Naito, M., Yaginuma, Y., Takahashi, H., Asano, S., Hojo, H., Kojima, M. Acta Pathol. Jpn. (1980) [Pubmed]
  10. Quantitative method for measuring adjuvant-induced granuloma angiogenesis in insulin-treated diabetic mice. Kimura, M., Amemiya, K., Yamada, T., Suzuki, J. J. Pharmacobio-dyn. (1986) [Pubmed]
  11. Methods for evaluating the morphological and immunohistochemical properties of human tumor colonies grown in soft agar. Persky, B., Thomson, S.P., Meyskens, F.L., Hendrix, M.J. In vitro. (1982) [Pubmed]
  12. Occupational asthma and immunologic responses induced by inhaled carmine among employees at a factory making natural dyes. Quirce, S., Cuevas, M., Olaguibel, J.M., Tabar, A.I. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Genetic instability in Drosophila melanogaster mediated by hobo transposable elements. Sheen, F., Lim, J.K., Simmons, M.J. Genetics (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Evaluation of iron bioavailability in infant weaning foods fortified with haem concentrate. Martinez, C., Fox, T., Eagles, J., Fairweather-Tait, S. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Improved Carica papaya tolerance to carmine spider mite by the expression of Manduca sexta chitinase transgene. McCafferty, H.R., Moore, P.H., Zhu, Y.J. Transgenic Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. An assessment of two gastric transport models currently used in safety pharmacology testing. Baldrick, P., Bamford, D.G., Tattersall, M.L. Human & experimental toxicology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Acute colitis induction by oil of mustard results in later development of an IBS-like accelerated upper GI transit in mice. Kimball, E.S., Palmer, J.M., D'Andrea, M.R., Hornby, P.J., Wade, P.R. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Multiple sclerosis--emerging concepts of disease pathogenesis. Antel, J. J. Neuroimmunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Denervation impairs healing of the rabbit medial collateral ligament. Ivie, T.J., Bray, R.C., Salo, P.T. J. Orthop. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Identification of G6PDH-active sinusoidal cells as Kupffer cells in the rat liver. Hosemann, W., Teutsch, H.F., Sasse, D. Cell Tissue Res. (1979) [Pubmed]
  21. Direct comparison of the migration of three cell types involved in epiretinal membrane formation. Hogg, P.A., Grierson, I., Hiscott, P. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. A branched histidine/lysine peptide, H2K4b, in complex with plasmids encoding antitumor proteins inhibits tumor xenografts. Leng, Q., Scaria, P., Ioffe, O.B., Woodle, M., Mixson, A.J. The journal of gene medicine (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Uptake of lithium carmine by sinusoidal endothelial and Kupffer cells of the rat liver: new insights into the classical vital staining and the reticulo-endothelial system. Kawai, Y., Smedsrød, B., Elvevold, K., Wake, K. Cell Tissue Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Defective expression of the mu3 subunit of the AP-3 adaptor complex in the Drosophila pigmentation mutant carmine. Mullins, C., Hartnell, L.M., Wassarman, D.A., Bonifacino, J.S. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. The stability of mutator (MR)-induced X-chromosomal recessive visible mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. Eeken, J.C. Mutat. Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  26. The modulation of granulomatous tissue and tumour angiogenesis by diclofenac in combination with hyaluronan (HYAL EX-0001). Freemantle, C., Alam, C.A., Brown, J.R., Seed, M.P., Willoughby, D.A. International journal of tissue reactions. (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. Identification of carmine allergens among three carmine allergy patients. Chung, K., Baker, J.R., Baldwin, J.L., Chou, A. Allergy (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Parathyroid surgery: the role of chief cell intracellular fat staining with osmium carmine in the intraoperative management of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Monchik, J.M., Farrugia, R., Teplitz, C., Teplitz, J., Brown, S. Surgery (1983) [Pubmed]
  29. Lack of improved growth outcome related to nonnutritive sucking in very low birth weight premature infants fed a controlled nutrient intake: a randomized prospective study. Ernst, J.A., Rickard, K.A., Neal, P.R., Yu, P.L., Oei, T.O., Lemons, J.A. Pediatrics (1989) [Pubmed]
  30. Identification of allergens involved in occupational asthma due to carmine dye. Lizaso, M.T., Moneo, I., García, B.E., Acero, S., Quirce, S., Tabar, A.I. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  31. Occupational asthma and food allergy due to carmine. Acero, S., Tabar, A.I., Alvarez, M.J., Garcia, B.E., Olaguibel, J.M., Moneo, I. Allergy (1998) [Pubmed]
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