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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Immunity


High impact information on Immunity


Chemical compound and disease context of Immunity


Biological context of Immunity


Anatomical context of Immunity


Associations of Immunity with chemical compounds


Gene context of Immunity

  • To characterize the immunological effects of intermittent IL-2 therapy, which leads to selective increases in CD4+ T lymphocytes in HIV-infected patients, 11 patients underwent extensive immunological evaluation [31].
  • It is well documented that neuropeptide Y (NPY) exerts a wide range of biological functions through at least five NPY Y receptor subtypes (Y1-Y5), but its immunological effects only recently came into focus [32].
  • Thus, immunological effects of IFN-beta1a and GA were similar showing that disease promoting Th1 (IFN-gamma) cells were reduced while the potentially beneficial Th2 response (IL-4) was maintained [33].
  • BACKGROUND: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) has multiple immunological effects on a wide variety of cells and tissues [34].
  • To determine the immunological effect on the resistance in vivo, we infected immunologically immature newborn mice homozygous (Fv-4(r/r)) and heterozygous (Fv-4(r/-)) for Fv-4 [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Immunity


  1. In vivo administration of purified Jurkat-derived interleukin 2 in mice. Donohue, J.H., Lotze, M.T., Robb, R.J., Rosenstein, M., Braziel, R.M., Jaffe, E.S., Rosenberg, S.A. Cancer Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Immunological effects of treatment with sequential administration of recombinant interferon gamma and alpha in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma during a phase I trial. Ernstoff, M.S., Gooding, W., Nair, S., Bahnson, R.R., Miketic, L.M., Banner, B., Day, R., Whiteside, T., Titus-Ernstoff, L., Kirkwood, J.M. Cancer Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Safety and immunogenicity of TA-HPV, a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing modified human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 and HPV-18 E6 and E7 genes, in women with progressive cervical cancer. Kaufmann, A.M., Stern, P.L., Rankin, E.M., Sommer, H., Nuessler, V., Schneider, A., Adams, M., Onon, T.S., Bauknecht, T., Wagner, U., Kroon, K., Hickling, J., Boswell, C.M., Stacey, S.N., Kitchener, H.C., Gillard, J., Wanders, J., Roberts, J.S., Zwierzina, H. Clin. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Indinavir: a review of its use in the management of HIV infection. Plosker, G.L., Noble, S. Drugs (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Reduced tissue immigration of monocytes by neuropeptide Y during endotoxemia is associated with Y2 receptor activation. Nave, H., Bedoui, S., Moenter, F., Steffens, J., Felies, M., Gebhardt, T., Straub, R.H., Pabst, R., Dimitrijevic, M., Stanojevic, S., von Hörsten, S. J. Neuroimmunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Pathological and immunological effects of ingesting L-tryptophan and 1,1'-ethylidenebis (L-tryptophan) in Lewis rats. Love, L.A., Rader, J.I., Crofford, L.J., Raybourne, R.B., Principato, M.A., Page, S.W., Trucksess, M.W., Smith, M.J., Dugan, E.M., Turner, M.L. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. D-penicillamine treatment improves survival in primary biliary cirrhosis. Epstein, O., Jain, S., Lee, R.G., Cook, D.G., Boss, A.M., Scheuer, P.J., Sherlock, S. Lancet (1981) [Pubmed]
  8. Toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 binds to major histocompatibility complex class II molecules. Scholl, P., Diez, A., Mourad, W., Parsonnet, J., Geha, R.S., Chatila, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Metabolic and immunological effects of antiretroviral agents in healthy individuals receiving post-exposure prophylaxis. Garcia, F., Plana, M., Mestre, G., Cruceta, A., Martinez, E., Miró, J.M., Mallolas, J., Tuset, M., Pumorola, T., Gallart, T., Gatell, J.M. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid complexed with poly-L-lysine and carboxymethylcellulose in combination with interleukin 2 in patients with cancer: clinical and immunological effects. Ewel, C.H., Urba, W.J., Kopp, W.C., Smith, J.W., Steis, R.G., Rossio, J.L., Longo, D.L., Jones, M.J., Alvord, W.G., Pinsky, C.M. Cancer Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Phase I study of the novel cyclic AMP (cAMP) analogue 8-chloro-cAMP in patients with cancer: toxicity, hormonal, and immunological effects. Propper, D.J., Saunders, M.P., Salisbury, A.J., Long, L., O'Byrne, K.J., Braybrooke, J.P., Dowsett, M., Taylor, M., Talbot, D.C., Ganesan, T.S., Harris, A.L. Clin. Cancer Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Sequential biochemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer using fluorouracil, folinic acid, thymopentin and interleukin-2: clinical and immunological effects. Lopez, M., Di Lauro, L., Paoletti, G., Santini, S., Gandolfo, G.M., Vitelli, G., Frasca, A.M., Ameglio, F., Rasi, G., Garaci, E. Ann. Oncol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Methionine-enkephalin as immunomodulator therapy in human immunodeficiency virus infections: clinical and immunological effects. Zunich, K.M., Kirkpatrick, C.H. J. Clin. Immunol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Sequential dacarbazine/cisplatin and interleukin-2 in metastatic melanoma: immunological effects of therapy. Redman, B.G., Flaherty, L., Chou, T.H., Nakeff, A., Pillote, K., Kaplan, J. J. Immunother. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. The cardioprotector dexrazoxane augments therapeutic efficacy of mitoxantrone in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Weilbach, F.X., Chan, A., Toyka, K.V., Gold, R. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Retinoic acid-induced transcriptional modulation of the human interferon-gamma promoter. Cippitelli, M., Ye, J., Viggiano, V., Sica, A., Ghosh, P., Gulino, A., Santoni, A., Young, H.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Repeated administrations of interleukin (IL)-12 are associated with persistently elevated plasma levels of IL-10 and declining IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-6, and IL-8 responses. Portielje, J.E., Lamers, C.H., Kruit, W.H., Sparreboom, A., Bolhuis, R.L., Stoter, G., Huber, C., Gratama, J.W. Clin. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Pharmacokinetics and immunological effects of exogenously administered recombinant human B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) in mice. Parry, T.J., Riccobene, T.A., Strawn, S.J., Williams, R., Daoud, R., Carrell, J., Sosnovtseva, S., Miceli, R.C., Poortman, C.M., Sekut, L., Li, Y., Fikes, J., Sung, C. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Alcohol-induced changes in the immune response: immunological effects of chronic ethanol intake are genetically regulated. Razani-Boroujerdi, S., Savage, S.M., Sopori, M.L. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Phase I trial of combined treatment with ch14.18 and R24 monoclonal antibodies and interleukin-2 for patients with melanoma or sarcoma. Choi, B.S., Sondel, P.M., Hank, J.A., Schalch, H., Gan, J., King, D.M., Kendra, K., Mahvi, D., Lee, L.Y., Kim, K., Albertini, M.R. Cancer Immunol. Immunother. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Noncytotoxic alkyl-lysophospholipid treatment increases sensitivity of leukemic K562 cells to lysis by natural killer (NK) cells. Botzler, C., Kolb, H.J., Issels, R.D., Multhoff, G. Int. J. Cancer (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and clinical effects of a humanized IgG1 anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody in the peripheral blood and synovial fluid of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Choy, E.H., Connolly, D.J., Rapson, N., Jeal, S., Brown, J.C., Kingsley, G.H., Panayi, G.S., Johnston, J.M. Rheumatology (Oxford, England) (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Mapping of dominant B-cell epitopes of a human zona pellucida protein (ZP1). Skinner, S.M., Schwoebel, E.S., Prasad, S.V., Oguna, M., Dunbar, B.S. Biol. Reprod. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Erythrocyte alloantigen diversity and some immunological effects of the B system in related New Hampshire strains. Scott, T.R., Oduho, G.W., Glick, B., Hagan, F., Briles, W.E., Yamamoto, Y. Poult. Sci. (1988) [Pubmed]
  25. Studies on the immunological effects of fatty alcohols--I. Effects of n-hexacosanol on murine macrophages in culture. Moosbrugger, I., Bischoff, P., Beck, J.P., Luu, B., Borg, J. Int. J. Immunopharmacol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. Isoprinosine and Imuthiol, two potentially active compounds in patients with AIDS-related complex symptoms. Pompidou, A., Delsaux, M.C., Telvi, L., Mace, B., Coutance, F., Falkenrodt, A., Lang, J.M. Cancer Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  27. Immunological effects of flavone acetic acid. Triozzi, P.L., Rinehart, J.J., Malspeis, L., Young, D.C., Grever, M.R. Cancer Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  28. Immunological and metabolic concomitants of cyclosporin prevention of diabetes in BB rats. Yale, J.F., Grose, M., Seemayer, T.A., Marliss, E.B. Diabetes (1987) [Pubmed]
  29. The treatment of antiretroviral-naive subjects with the 3TC/zidovudine combination: a review of North American (NUCA 3001) and European (NUCB 3001) trials. Eron, J.J. AIDS (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Immunological effects of thalidomide and its chemical and functional analogs. Dredge, K., Marriott, J.B., Dalgleish, A.G. Crit. Rev. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Interleukin-2 induced immune effects in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients receiving intermittent interleukin-2 immunotherapy. Kovacs, J.A., Vogel, S., Metcalf, J.A., Baseler, M., Stevens, R., Adelsberger, J., Lempicki, R., Hengel, R.L., Sereti, I., Lambert, L., Dewar, R.L., Davey, R.T., Walker, R.E., Falloon, J., Polis, M.A., Masur, H., Lane, H.C. Eur. J. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. Neuropeptide Y and its receptor subtypes specifically modulate rat peritoneal macrophage functions in vitro: counter regulation through Y1 and Y2/5 receptors. Dimitrijević, M., Stanojević, S., Vujić, V., Beck-Sickinger, A., von Hörsten, S. Regul. Pept. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Elispot assay detection of cytokine secretion in multiple sclerosis patients treated with interferon-beta1a or glatiramer acetate compared with untreated patients. Jansson, A., Ernerudh, J., Kvarnström, M., Ekerfelt, C., Vrethem, M. Mult. Scler. (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. Interleukin-6 and soluble interleukin-6 receptor in the colonic mucosa of inflammatory bowel disease. Hosokawa, T., Kusugami, K., Ina, K., Ando, T., Shinoda, M., Imada, A., Ohsuga, M., Sakai, T., Matsuura, T., Ito, K., Kaneshiro, K. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  35. Resistance to Friend murine leukemia virus infection conferred by the Fv-4 gene is recessive but appears dominant from the effect of the immune system. Zhang, F., Ya, L.T., Iwatani, Y., Higo, K., Suzuki, Y., Tanaka, M., Nakahara, T., Ono, T., Sakai, H., Kuribayashi, K., Ishimoto, A. J. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  36. Effects of different lipid emulsions on lymphocyte function during total parenteral nutrition. Sedman, P.C., Somers, S.S., Ramsden, C.W., Brennan, T.G., Guillou, P.J. The British journal of surgery. (1991) [Pubmed]
  37. Infiltration of activated dendritic cells and T cells in renal cell carcinoma following combined cytokine immunotherapy. Verra, N., de Jong, D., Bex, A., Batchelor, D., Dellemijn, T., Sein, J., Nooijen, W., Meinhardt, W., Horenblas, S., de Gast, G., Vyth-Dreese, F. Eur. Urol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  38. Short communication: No detrimental immunological effects of mycophenolate mofetil and HAART in treatment-naive acute and chronic HIV-1-infected patients. Vrisekoop, N., Sankatsing, S.U., Jansen, C.A., Roos, M.T., Otto, S.A., Schuitemaker, H., Lange, J.M., Prins, J.M., Miedema, F. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses (2005) [Pubmed]
  39. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid on growth and cytokine expression in Jurkat T cells. Luongo, D., Bergamo, P., Rossi, M. Immunol. Lett. (2003) [Pubmed]
  40. Immunological effect of two synthetic peptides containing alanine or D-alanine instead of acetyl group of thymosin beta 4 after treatment of human serum. Abiko, T., Sekino, H. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (1990) [Pubmed]
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