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Gene Review

TMSB4X  -  thymosin beta 4, X-linked

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: FX, Fx, PTMB4, T beta-4, TB4X, ...
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Disease relevance of TMSB4X


High impact information on TMSB4X


Chemical compound and disease context of TMSB4X


Biological context of TMSB4X


Anatomical context of TMSB4X


Associations of TMSB4X with chemical compounds

  • In contrast, significant amounts of AGP were found to be associated with the cells overexpressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) without Tbeta4 treatment [17].
  • Therefore we studied changes in thymosin beta4 and actin content of HL60 cells after induction of apoptosis using cytosine arabinoside (araC) [14].
  • Interestingly, a sponge toxin, latrunculin A, which inhibits the binding of thymosin beta4 to actin, was found to profoundly affect the morphology and proliferation of the AdoMetDC transformants and to block their invasion in three-dimensional Matrigel [1].
  • At least 50% of the actin in resting human platelets is unpolymerized, and the bulk of this unpolymerized actin is complexed with a recently identified acidic, heat-stable 5-kDa peptide, named "Fx." Purified Fx binds stoichiometrically to muscle G-actin, forming a complex identifiable by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis [18].
  • We further showed that in digitonin permeabilised and extracted cells, fluorescent thymosin beta4 was solely localised within the cytoplasm, whereas it was found concentrated within the cell nuclei after an additional Triton X100 extraction [19].

Physical interactions of TMSB4X

  • Taken together, these results provide the evidence supporting a novel mechanism by which active PAI-1 can be bound to the Tbeta4-activated endothelial cells, thus influencing their adhesive properties as well as their ability to generate plasmin [17].
  • Furthermore, T beta 4 enhanced c-Fos/c-Jun DNA-binding activity to the activator protein 1 (AP-1)-like element (-59 to -52) [10].

Regulatory relationships of TMSB4X


Other interactions of TMSB4X


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TMSB4X

  • Northern blot analyses of different neoplastic B lymphocytes revealed that steady state levels of thymosin-beta 4 mRNA varied as a function of differentiation stage [2].
  • Here we show that after microinjection into intact cells, fluorescently labelled thymosin beta4 has a diffuse cytoplasmic and a pronounced nuclear staining [19].
  • Thymosin beta4 has been previously reported to localise intracellularly to the cytoplasm as detected by immunofluorescence [19].
  • Circular dichroism data indicate that free thymosin beta 4 is predominantly unstructured, containing at most six residues of alpha-helix, and that up to six additional residues may adopt an alpha-helical conformation upon binding actin [24].
  • Data from HPLC profile and induction of MMPs indicate that HGF may affect the biological behavior of HUVECs through a combination of the direct effects of HGF itself and indirect effects mediated via induction of thymosin beta4 in vitro [20].


  1. Thymosin beta4 is a determinant of the transformed phenotype and invasiveness of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase-transfected fibroblasts. Nummela, P., Yin, M., Kielosto, M., Leaner, V., Birrer, M.J., Hölttä, E. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Differential expression of the human thymosin-beta 4 gene in lymphocytes, macrophages, and granulocytes. Gondo, H., Kudo, J., White, J.W., Barr, C., Selvanayagam, P., Saunders, G.F. J. Immunol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. Overexpression of the thymosin beta-4 gene is associated with increased invasion of SW480 colon carcinoma cells and the distant metastasis of human colorectal carcinoma. Wang, W.S., Chen, P.M., Hsiao, H.L., Wang, H.S., Liang, W.Y., Su, Y. Oncogene (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Expression of the thymosin beta 4 gene during differentiation of hematopoietic cells. Shimamura, R., Kudo, J., Kondo, H., Dohmen, K., Gondo, H., Okamura, S., Ishibashi, H., Niho, Y. Blood (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Overexpression of thymosin beta-4 renders SW480 colon carcinoma cells more resistant to apoptosis triggered by FasL and two topoisomerase II inhibitors via downregulating Fas and upregulating Survivin expression, respectively. Hsiao, H.L., Wang, W.S., Chen, P.M., Su, Y. Carcinogenesis (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. How profilin promotes actin filament assembly in the presence of thymosin beta 4. Pantaloni, D., Carlier, M.F. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Small actin-binding proteins: the beta-thymosin family. Nachmias, V.T. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. The actin binding site of thymosin beta 4 mapped by mutational analysis. Van Troys, M., Dewitte, D., Goethals, M., Carlier, M.F., Vandekerckhove, J., Ampe, C. EMBO J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Thymosin beta 4 (Fx peptide) is a potent regulator of actin polymerization in living cells. Sanders, M.C., Goldstein, A.L., Wang, Y.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Thymosin beta 4 induces the synthesis of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 in cultured endothelial cells and increases its extracellular expression. Al-Nedawi, K.N., Czyz, M., Bednarek, R., Szemraj, J., Swiatkowska, M., Cierniewska-Cieslak, A., Wyczolkowska, J., Cierniewski, C.S. Blood (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. The cysteine-proximal aspartates in the Fx-binding niche of photosystem I. Effect of alanine and lysine replacements on photoautotrophic growth, electron transfer rates, single-turnover flash efficiency, and EPR spectral properties. Vassiliev, I.R., Yu, J., Jung, Y.S., Schulz, R., Ganago, A.O., McIntosh, L., Golbeck, J.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Modulation of thymosin beta 4 by estrogen. Suh, B.Y., Naylor, P.H., Goldstein, A.L., Rebar, R.W. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  13. Therapeutic Potential of Thymosin-beta4 and its Derivative N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP) in Cardiac Healing After Infarction. Cavasin, M.A. American journal of cardiovascular drugs : drugs, devices, and other interventions (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Reduction of thymosin beta4 and actin in HL60 cells during apoptosis is preceded by a decrease of their mRNAs. Müller, C.S., Huff, T., Hannappel, E. Mol. Cell. Biochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Assignment of the thymosin beta 4 X/Y chromosome (TMSB4X/Y) gene to tammar wallaby chromosome 5p by fluorescence in situ hybridisation. Waters, P.D., Sankovic, N., Kirby, P.J., Delbridge, M.L., Graves, J.A. Cytogenet. Genome Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Thymosin beta 4 stimulates directional migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Malinda, K.M., Goldstein, A.L., Kleinman, H.K. FASEB J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Binding of PAI-1 to endothelial cells stimulated by thymosin beta4 and modulation of their fibrinolytic potential. Boncela, J., Smolarczyk, K., Wyroba, E., Cierniewski, C.S. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Thymosin beta 4 and Fx, an actin-sequestering peptide, are indistinguishable. Safer, D., Elzinga, M., Nachmias, V.T. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Nuclear localisation of the G-actin sequestering peptide thymosin beta4. Huff, T., Rosorius, O., Otto, A.M., Müller, C.S., Ballweber, E., Hannappel, E., Mannherz, H.G. J. Cell. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Hepatocyte growth factor upregulates thymosin beta4 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Oh, I.S., So, S.S., Jahng, K.Y., Kim, H.G. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Zyxin is upregulated in the nucleus by thymosin beta4 in SiHa cells. Moon, H.S., Even-Ram, S., Kleinman, H.K., Cha, H.J. Exp. Cell Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. The interaction of (1-4)-fragment of thymosin beta 4 with calmodulin-sensitive cAMP phosphodiesterase from hypothalamus. Voelter, W., Kapuzniotu, A., Mihelic, M., Gurvits, B., Abrahamian, G., Galoyan, A. Neurochem. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Polyamine depletion alters the relationship of F-actin, G-actin, and thymosin beta4 in migrating IEC-6 cells. McCormack, S.A., Ray, R.M., Blanner, P.M., Johnson, L.R. Am. J. Physiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Thymosin beta 4 binds actin in an extended conformation and contacts both the barbed and pointed ends. Safer, D., Sosnick, T.R., Elzinga, M. Biochemistry (1997) [Pubmed]
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