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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Ear Canal

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Disease relevance of Ear Canal


High impact information on Ear Canal

  • Iontophoresis was performed in left ears of five rabbits after the external auditory canals were filled with a solution of water and gadopentetate dimeglumine of optimal concentration, and right ears were used as controls [6].
  • Since recent research has provided insight to the production of potent antimicrobial peptides from various surface epithelia, we wanted to investigate whether protection of the external auditory canal in part could be explained by the production of human beta-defensin-1 (HBD-1) [7].
  • CHL indicates disease in the external auditory canal, tympanic membrane, or middle ear; CT with thin bone algorithms is the best study [8].
  • 4. At low to moderate stimulus levels of 40-60 dB SPL, there was a near perfect, minute-by-minute covariation of the ear canal CDT amplitude and the BF threshold measured in the AVCN [9].
  • Response areas of multiunit clusters in the AVCN and DPOAEs in the ear canal were measured alternately in the adult gerbil during furosemide-induced changes of the endocochlear potential [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Ear Canal


Biological context of Ear Canal


Anatomical context of Ear Canal

  • The sound radiated from the tympanic membrane was approximately 85 dB SPL at an umbo differential velocity of 1 mm/s for low frequencies in an open ear canal and about 10 dB higher for an occluded one; at higher frequencies (above 2 kHz) resonances of the canal determine the response [17].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of 2 ceruminolytic products, Cerumenex Eardrops (Purdue Frederick Company, Norwalk, Conn) and Murine Ear Drops (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Ill), in subjects with partial or complete occlusion of the ear canal due to cerumen [18].
  • It possessed two regions: firstly the meatal plate, which produced the pars tensa-covering epithelium (zone 2) and most of the deep ear canal epithelium (zone 3), and secondly the fundal extension plate, which grew from that part of the fundus not forming the meatal plate [19].
  • An unusual case of calcium pyrophosphate arthropathy (pseudogout) involving the temporomandibular joint of a 53-year-old woman presented clinically as an ear canal tumor [20].
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cochlear microphonics (CMs) recorded from one round window (RW) of fetal sheep in utero were obtained in three conditions: (1) head uncovered; (2) head covered with a neoprene hood; and (3) head covered with a neoprene hood fashioned with a hole that permitted the pinna and ear canal to be exposed [21].

Associations of Ear Canal with chemical compounds


Gene context of Ear Canal


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ear Canal


  1. The isotretinoin teratogen syndrome. Benke, P.J. JAMA (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Targeting TGF-beta1 increases hepatocyte growth factor (HGF/SF) levels in external auditory canal cholesteatoma (EACC) epithelial cell culture. Naim, R., Chang, R.C., Alfano, S.S., Riedel, F., Bayerl, C., Sadick, H., Bran, G., Hormann, K. Regul. Pept. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Wound contamination and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria cultured during total ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy in dogs. Vogel, P.L., Komtebedde, J., Hirsh, D.C., Kass, P.H. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Antimicrobial activity of glycerine-ichthammol in otitis externa. Ahmed, K., Roberts, M.L., Mannion, P.T. Clinical otolaryngology and allied sciences. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Cholesterol granuloma presenting in the ear canal. Matt, B.H., Myer, C.M., Bellet, P.S. The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology. (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Transtympanic iontophoresis with a biocompatible paramagnetic solution at MR imaging: experimental feasibility study in rabbits. Maris, T.G., Prassopoulos, P., Papanikolaou, N., Christodoulou, P., Doxas, P.G., Helidonis, E.S., Gourtsoyiannis, N. Radiology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Human beta-defensin-1 mRNA is transcribed in tympanic membrane and adjacent auditory canal epithelium. Bøe, R., Silvola, J., Yang, J., Moens, U., McCray, P.B., Stenfors, L.E., Seljfelid, R. Infect. Immun. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Hearing loss. Weissman, J.L. Radiology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of furosemide on distortion product otoacoustic emissions and on neuronal responses in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus. Rübsamen, R., Mills, D.M., Rubel, E.W. J. Neurophysiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Alteration of epidermal differentiation in middle ear cholesteatoma. Stammberger, M., Bujía, J., Kastenbauer, E. The American journal of otology. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Potential ototoxicity from triamcinolone, neomycin, gramicidin and nystatin (Tri-Adcortyl) cream. Thomas, S.P., Buckland, J.R., Rhys-Williams, S.R. The Journal of laryngology and otology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Near synchronous methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus external auditory canal abscesses in 2 pediatric siblings. Buchalter, G.M. Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Serous otitis media (S.O.M.). A bacteriological study of the ear canal and the middle ear. Cabenda, S.I., Peerbooms, P.G., van Asselt, G.J., Feenstra, L., van der Baan, S. Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Organ culture studies on human skin and cholesteatoma epithelium. Contact with connective tissue and exposure to vitamin A. Palva, T., Thesleff, I., Saxén, L. Acta Otolaryngol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  15. Up-regulation of beta-catenin in external auditory canal cholesteatoma. Naim, R., Chang, R.C., Anders, C., Sadick, H., Riedel, F., Bayerl, C., Bran, G., Hormann, K. Int. J. Mol. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Up-regulation of peroxidase proliferator-activated receptor gamma in cholesteatoma. Hwang, S.J., Kang, H.J., Song, J.J., Kang, J.S., Woo, J.S., Chae, S.W., Lee, H.M. Laryngoscope (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Factors contributing to bone conduction: the middle ear. Stenfelt, S., Hato, N., Goode, R.L. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Randomized, placebo-controlled evaluation of Cerumenex and Murine earwax removal products. Roland, P.S., Eaton, D.A., Gross, R.D., Wall, G.M., Conroy, P.J., Garadi, R., Lafontaine, L., Potts, S., Hogg, G. Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Auditory epithelial migration. III. Development of the stratified squamous epithelium of the tympanic membrane and external canal in the mouse. Michaels, L., Soucek, S. Am. J. Anat. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Chondrocalcinosis of the temporomandibular joint: an external ear canal pseudotumor. Magno, W.B., Lee, S.H., Schmidt, J. Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Fetal sheep in utero hear through bone conduction. Gerhardt, K.J., Huang, X., Arrington, K.E., Meixner, K., Abrams, R.M., Antonelli, P.J. American journal of otolaryngology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Calcium oxalate crystal deposition in necrotizing otomycosis caused by Aspergillus niger. Landry, M.M., Parkins, C.W. Mod. Pathol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. The use of acetone to dissolve a Styrofoam impaction of the ear. White, S.J., Broner, S. Annals of emergency medicine. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Randomized clinical trial of docusate, triethanolamine polypeptide, and irrigation in cerumen removal in children. Whatley, V.N., Dodds, C.L., Paul, R.I. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Use of a continuous, local infusion of bupivacaine for postoperative analgesia in dogs undergoing total ear canal ablation. Radlinsky, M.G., Mason, D.E., Roush, J.K., Pineda, R. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Acoustic distortion products can be used to monitor the effects of chronic gentamicin treatment. Brown, A.M., McDowell, B., Forge, A. Hear. Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  27. Effect of vascular endothelial growth factor on fibroblasts from external auditory canal cholesteatoma. Naim, R., Chang, R.C., Sadick, H., Bayerl, C., Bran, G., Hormann, K. Arch. Med. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Expression of the gap junction proteins connexin 26 and connexin 43 in human middle ear cholesteatoma. Choung, Y.H., Park, K., Kang, S.O., Markov Raynov, A., Ho Kim, C., Choung, P.H. Acta Otolaryngol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. Expression of beta-catenin in external auditory canal cholesteatoma (EACC). Naim, R., Riedel, F., Bran, G., Hörmann, K. Biofactors (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Cycline-dependent kinase inhibitor, p27 (KIP1), is associated with cholesteatoma. Bayazít, Y.A., Karakök, M., Uçak, R., Kanlíkama, M. Laryngoscope (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. Expression patterns of cytokeratins in cholesteatomas: evidence of increased migration and proliferation. Kim, H.J., Tinling, S.P., Chole, R.A. J. Korean Med. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. REM latency and core temperature relationships in primary depression. Avery, D.H., Wildschiødtz, G., Smallwood, R.G., Martin, D., Rafaelsen, O.J. Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. (1986) [Pubmed]
  33. A method to induce swapped binaural hearing. Hofman, P.M., Vlaming, M.S., Termeer, P.J., Van Opstal, A.J. J. Neurosci. Methods (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. Impedance audiometric measurements in clinically normal dogs. Cole, L.K., Podell, M., Kwochka, K.W. Am. J. Vet. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  35. Vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials in infancy and early childhood. Sheykholeslami, K., Sheykholesami, K., Megerian, C.A., Arnold, J.E., Kaga, K. Laryngoscope (2005) [Pubmed]
  36. Measurement of human cochlear blood flow. Miller, J.M., Bredberg, G., Grenman, R., Suonpää, J., Lindström, B., Didier, A. The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology. (1991) [Pubmed]
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