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MeSH Review

Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)

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Disease relevance of Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)


Psychiatry related information on Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)


High impact information on Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)

  • The advantage of propranolol over placebo was maintained when potentially confounding variables were adjusted with use of the Cox model [10].
  • I eliminated the contribution of the major confounding variable to understanding the antiinflammatory response, the 3' UTR region of inflammatory mediator genes, through knock-in mutation and analysis of the effects of IL-10 on transcription rate of inflammatory genes [11].
  • After adjusting for potential confounding variables, a highly significant relationship was found between inheritance of the IL-10 promoter -592*A and -819*T alleles or the ATA haplotype and response to IFN-alpha therapy (P =.016) [12].
  • In conclusion, NAFLD markers ALT and the AST-to-ALT ratio predict metabolic syndrome independently of potential confounding variables, including directly measured Si and AIR [13].
  • RESULTS: In both samples, a significant correlation between age and depression was found; younger persons (age < or = 45 years) with RA were significantly more depressed, even after controlling for potentially confounding variables such as sex, marital status, antidepressant medication, arthritis medication, functional class, and disease duration [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)


Biological context of Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)


Anatomical context of Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)

  • The Western pattern was associated (P < 0.05) positively with serum C-peptide, serum insulin, and glycated hemoglobin and inversely with red blood cell folate concentrations after adjustment for confounding variables [25].
  • Proportional hazards were used to analyze the effect of family history and confounding variables (that is age, stage, biopsy Gleason score, initial PSA levels, surgical specimen Gleason score, extracapsular extension, lymph node metastasis, seminal vesicle invasion and surgical margin involvement) on treatment outcome [26].
  • To determine whether hydrosalpinges affect IVF outcome via endometrial factors alone, we analysed the results of recipients of donor oocytes with hydrosalpinges, thereby controlling for confounding variables, while isolating the intrauterine environment [27].
  • Our objective was to determine whether Type 1 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria are less sensitive to the effects of insulin on glucose metabolism and skeletal muscle blood flow, compared to those with normal albumin excretion, after careful matching for confounding variables [28].
  • The functional status of the immune system was investigated in a group of 71 workers exposed to styrene and in 65 control subjects, recruited according to the same selection criteria and comparable as to sex, age, and confounding variables [29].

Associations of Confounding Factors (Epidemiology) with chemical compounds


Gene context of Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)


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  19. A comparison of estrogen use by women with endometrial cancer, gynecologic disorders, and other illnesses. Stavraky, K.M., Collins, J.A., Donner, A., Wells, G.A. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1981) [Pubmed]
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  21. Body fat distribution in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Douchi, T., Ijuin, H., Nakamura, S., Oki, T., Yamamoto, S., Nagata, Y. Obstetrics and gynecology. (1995) [Pubmed]
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  23. Obstructive sleep apnea and the metabolic syndrome in community-based Chinese adults in Hong Kong. Lam, J.C., Lam, B., Lam, C.L., Fong, D., Wang, J.K., Tse, H.F., Lam, K.S., Ip, M.S. Respiratory medicine. (2006) [Pubmed]
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  27. Hydrosalpinges adversely affect implantation in donor oocyte cycles. Cohen, M.A., Lindheim, S.R., Sauer, M.V. Hum. Reprod. (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Insulin action and skeletal muscle blood flow in patients with Type 1 diabetes and microalbuminuria. Wiggam, M.I., Hunter, S.J., Ennis, C.N., Sheridan, B., Atkinson, A.B., Bell, P.M. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. Immunological changes among workers occupationally exposed to styrene. Bergamaschi, E., Smargiassi, A., Mutti, A., Franchini, I., Lucchini, R. International archives of occupational and environmental health. (1995) [Pubmed]
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  36. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase -786T>C, but not 894G>T and 4a4b, polymorphism influences plasma homocysteine concentrations in persons with normal vitamin status. Fatini, C., Sofi, F., Gori, A.M., Sticchi, E., Marcucci, R., Lenti, M., Casini, A., Surrenti, C., Abbate, R., Gensini, G.F. Clin. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
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