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Chemical Compound Review

Ligustizine     2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine

Synonyms: Ligustrazine, TMPZ, Tetrapyrazine, Chuanxiongzine, Bs factor, ...
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Disease relevance of Chuanxiongzine


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Chemical compound and disease context of Chuanxiongzine


Biological context of Chuanxiongzine


Anatomical context of Chuanxiongzine


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Gene context of Chuanxiongzine


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Chuanxiongzine


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  3. Tetramethylpyradizine prevents inducible NO synthase expression and improves survival in rodent models of endotoxic shock. Wu, C.C., Liao, M.H., Chen, S.J., Yen, M.H. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Ligustrazine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation in pulmonary arteries via an NO-mediated and exogenous L-arginine-dependent mechanism. Peng, W., Hucks, D., Priest, R.M., Kan, Y.M., Ward, J.P. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Tetramethylpyrazine Attenuates Adriamycin-Induced Apoptotic Injury in Rat Renal Tubular Cells NRK-52E. Cheng, C.Y., Sue, Y.M., Chen, C.H., Hou, C.C., Chan, P., Chu, Y.L., Chen, T.H., Hsu, Y.H. Planta Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Inhibitory mechanisms of tetramethylpyrazine in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Hsiao, G., Chen, Y.C., Lin, J.H., Lin, K.H., Chou, D.S., Lin, C.H., Sheu, J.R. Planta Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Activation of apical CFTR and basolateral Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels by tetramethylpyrazine in Caco-2 cell line. Zhu, J.X., Zhang, G.H., Yang, N., Rowlands, D.K., Wong, H.Y., Tsang, L.L., Chung, Y.W., Chan, H.C. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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  10. Hemodynamic and nonhemodynamic mechanisms of experimental pulmonary edema in rats and the effects of anisodamine and tetramethylpyrazine--estimation of blood gas analysis, RBC superoxide dismutase and prostaglandin E2 in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage (Part 3). Dai, S., Cheng, J., Sun, R., Duan, J., Yuan, Q., Sun, Y., Yan, Y., Xue, Q. Chin. Med. Sci. J. (1993) [Pubmed]
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  12. Candidates for cognitive enhancer extracted from medicinal plants: paeoniflorin and tetramethylpyrazine. Watanabe, H. Behav. Brain Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Analogues of tetramethylpyrazine affect membrane fluidity of liposomes: relationship to their biological activities. Nie, S.Q., Majarais, I., Kwan, C.Y., Epand, R.M. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Iron-induced oxidative damage and apoptosis in cerebellar granule cells: attenuation by tetramethylpyrazine and ferulic acid. Zhang, Z., Wei, T., Hou, J., Li, G., Yu, S., Xin, W. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Vascular effects of tetramethylpyrazine: direct interaction with smooth muscle alpha-adrenoceptors. Kwan, C.Y., Gaspar, V., Shi, A.G., Wang, Z.L., Chen, M.C., Ohta, A., Cragoe, E.J., Daniel, E.E. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1991) [Pubmed]
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  17. Tetramethylpyrazine inhibits ATP-activated currents in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. Liang, S.D., Xu, C.S., Zhou, T., Liu, H.Q., Gao, Y., Li, G.L. Brain Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Protective effects of tetramethylpyrazine on kainate-induced excitotoxicity in hippocampal culture. Shih, Y.H., Wu, S.L., Chiou, W.F., Ku, H.H., Ko, T.L., Fu, Y.S. Neuroreport (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Differential Cl- and HCO3- mediated anion secretion by different colonic cell types in response to tetromethylpyrazine. Zhu, J.X., Yang, N., He, Q., Tsang, L.L., Zhao, W.C., Chung, Y.W., Chan, H.C. World J. Gastroenterol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Beneficial effects of tetramethylpyrazine, an active constituent of Chinese herbs, on rats with endotoxemia. Liao, M.H., Wu, C.C., Yen, M.H. Proc. Natl. Sci. Counc. Repub. China B (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Inhibition of cyclic strain-induced endothelin-1 secretion by tetramethylpyrazine. Bi, W.F., Yang, H.Y., Liu, J.C., Cheng, T.H., Chen, C.H., Shih, C.M., Lin, H., Wang, T.C., Lian, W.S., Chen, J.J., Chiu, H.C., Chang, N.C. Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Neuroprotection by tetramethylpyrazine against ischemic brain injury in rats. Kao, T.K., Ou, Y.C., Kuo, J.S., Chen, W.Y., Liao, S.L., Wu, C.W., Chen, C.J., Ling, N.N., Zhang, Y.H., Peng, W.H. Neurochem. Int. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Analysis of tetramethylpyrazine in Ephedrae herba by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. Lv, K., Li, H., Ding, M. Journal of chromatography. A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Effect of tetramethylpyrazine on P-selectin and hepatic/renal ischemia and reperfusion injury in rats. Chen, J.L., Zhou, T., Chen, W.X., Zhu, J.S., Chen, N.W., Zhang, M.J., Wu, Y.L. World J. Gastroenterol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Protective effect of tetramethylpyrazine on absolute ethanol-induced renal toxicity in mice. Liu, C.F., Lin, M.H., Lin, C.C., Chang, H.W., Lin, S.C. J. Biomed. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
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