The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

Richter     (2S)-2-amino-N-(1,2,3,4...

Synonyms: Tedranalin, AC1MHUFW, LS-95714, RG 305, 14329-69-2, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Richter

  • These B-cell cancers include large B-cell lymphoma (the Richter syndrome), prolymphocytic transformation, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and multiple myeloma [1].
  • Forty-eight patients were treated and were assessable for response (32 with chronic lymphocytic leukemia [CLL], 9 with CLL/prolymphocytic leukemia [PLL], 1 with PLL, 4 with mantle cell leukemia/lymphoma, 2 with Richter transformation) [2].
  • We previously purified and characterized functionally the Escherichia coli-expressed product of the human subgroup C adenovirus E1A 13S mRNA (B. Ferguson, N. Jones, J. Richter, and M. Rosenberg, Science 224:1343-1346, 1984; B. Krippl, B. Ferguson, M. Rosenberg, and H. Westphal, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81:6988-6992, 1984) [3].
  • In the recently published crystal structure of Thermus aquaticus core RNA polymerase (Zhang, G., Campbell, E. A., Minakhin, L., Richter, C., Severinov, K. , and Darst, S. A. (1999) Cell 98, 811-824), the region homologous to beta'(260-309) of Escherichia coli forms a coiled coil [4].
  • The first scientific description of this particular hernia was given by August Gottlob Richter in 1778, who presented it as "the small rupture." In 1887, Sir Frederick Treves gave an excellent overview on the topic and proposed the title "Richter's hernia." To his work-a cornerstone to modern understanding-hardly any new aspects can be added today [5].

Psychiatry related information on Richter

  • Three months after the devastating Chi-Chi earthquake (magnitude of 7.3 on the Richter scale) struck the central area of Taiwan, 663 victims were screened for psychiatric morbidity at a local general hospital in a community mental health program [6].
  • The acute effects of earthquake-related psychological stress on total and cardiac mortality were investigated using mortality data from the city of Thessaloniki (Greece) which was hit on 19 and 20 June 1978, by two strong earthquakes, measuring 5.2 and 6.4 degrees on the Richter scale, respectively [7].

High impact information on Richter

  • In 1948 the German physicist, Manfred Richter, reported that colour vision has a seasonal variation [8].
  • The high leukemic C58 inbred line of mice originated in a similar, unexplained manner [MacDowell, E.C. & Richter, M.N. (1935) Arch. Pathol. 20, 709-724] [9].
  • Finally, CD38 signaling in IL-2-treated B-CLL cells prolonged survival and induced the appearance of plasmablasts, providing a pathogenetic hypothesis for the occurrence of Richter syndrome [10].
  • Polysomal recruitment of at least one of these mRNAs, G10, is regulated by cytoplasmic poly(A) elongation which, in turn, is dependent upon the cytoplasmic polyadenylation element (CPE) UUUUUUAUAAAG and the hexanucleotide AAUAAA (L. L. McGrew, E. Dworkin-Rastl, M. B. Dworkin, and J. D. Richter, Genes Dev. 3:803-815, 1989) [11].
  • Recently the existence of a mitochondrial NOS (mtNOS), its Ca(2+) dependence, and its relevance for mitochondrial bioenergetics was reported (Ghafourifar, P., and Richter, C. (1997) FEBS Lett. 418, 291-296; Giulivi, C., Poderoso, J. J., and Boveris, A. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 11038-11043) [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Richter


Biological context of Richter

  • Contraction-induced translocation of protein kinase C (Richter E.A., Cleland, P.J.F., Rattigan, S., and Clark, M.G. (1987) FEBS Lett. 217, 232-236) implies a role for this enzyme in muscle contraction or the associated metabolic adjustments [16].
  • We extended the results of Ruckdeschel et al. and found that on the basis of the presence or absence of arginine-143 of YopP (K. Ruckdeschel, K. Richter, O. Mannel, and J. Heesemann, Infect. Immun. 69:7652-7662, 2001) all the Y. enterocolitica strains used fell into two groups, which correlate with the low- and high-virulence phenotypes [17].
  • Fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments indicated that Cys63 is 42 A away from the nucleotide binding site on the beta polypeptide, confirming a previous measurement [(Colvert, K.K., Mills, D.A., Richter, M.L. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 3930-3935] [18].
  • Nucleotide sequence of the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA in diploid wheat, Triticum speltoides L. (Tausch) Gren. ex Richter (Gramineae) [19].
  • It inhibits cytochrome c oxidase, detaches proapoptotic proteins from mitochondria, and induces apoptosis in mammalian retinal pigment epithelial cells (M. Suter, C. E. Remé, C. Grimm, A. Wenzel, M. Jäättela, P. Esser, N. Kociok, M. Leist, and C. Richter, 2000, J. Biol. Chem. 275, 39625-39630) [20].

Anatomical context of Richter

  • These results further support the proposal of the formation of monomolecular complexes between cytochrome P-450 and NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase in liposomal membranes (Gut, J., Richter, C., Cherry, R.J., Winterhalter, K.H., and Kawato, S [21].
  • This case illustrates that transformation or Richter syndrome may occur in a minority of patients with T-cell LGL leukaemia, a disease that has a benign clinical course in most cases [22].
  • Spreading depression (SD) can be elicited in the brainstem of rats younger than 13 days when excitability is enhanced by acetate superfusion [F. Richter, S. Rupprecht, A. Lehmenkühler, H.-G. Schaible, Spreading depression can be elicited in brain stem in immature but not adult rats, J. Neurophysiol. 90 (2003) 2163--2170] [23].
  • Here the function of a subfamily of interspersed RNA (XR family; McGrew and Richter, 1989: Dev Biol 134:267-270) in Xenopus oocytes was studied [24].
  • We have previously described the rat liver resealed nuclear envelope model system for the study of the selective import of nuclear proteins, and the export of poly(A)-containing mRNA [Riedel, N., Bachmann, M., Richter, H. & Fasold, H. (1987) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 83, 3540-3544] [25].

Associations of Richter with other chemical compounds

  • Arginine vasopressin messenger RNA is axonally transported in the rat hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system [for review see Mohr et al. (1993) In Vasopressin (eds Gross P., Richter D. and Robertson C. L.), pp. 119-129, John Libbey Eurotext] [26].
  • 1996 Curt P. Richter Award. Effects of viral infection on corticosterone secretion and glucocorticoid receptor binding in immune tissues [27].
  • We have recently shown that eccentric contractions (Ecc) of rat calf muscles cause muscle damage and decreased glycogen and glucose transporter GLUT-4 protein content in the white (WG) and red gastrocnemius (RG) but not in the soleus (S) (S. Asp, S. Kristiansen, and E. A. Richter. J. Appl. Physiol. 79: 1338-1345, 1995) [28].
  • Richter and others also studied a small number of patients on maximal therapy and found further intraocular pressure reduction with added timolol [29].
  • Yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan radioimmunotherapy in Richter syndrome [30].

Gene context of Richter

  • The structure of the precursors for Ala-deltorphins was recently deduced from cloned cDNAs derived from skin of Phyllomedusa bicolor (Richter et al. (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87, 4836-4839) [31].
  • Further analysis of the data showed that the angle between the heme plane of P-450MC and the membrane is 48 degrees or 62 degrees, different from the value of 55 degrees reported previously for P-450PB (Gut, J., Richter, C., Cherry, R. J., Winterhalter, K. H., and Kawato, S. (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 8588-8594) [32].
  • Lipophilic chelates of divalent copper, possessing superoxide dismutase-like activity, have been proposed to enhance the decay of oxycytochrome P-450 to explain their inhibitory effect on microsomal mixed-function oxidation reactions (Richter, C., Azzi, A., Weser, U., and Wendel, A. (1977) J. Biol. Chem. 252, 5061-5066) [33].
  • We have previously characterized in Xenopus a nervous system specific gene, nrp1, that is more similar to the hnRNP A/B proteins than to other known proteins (K. Richter, P. J. Good, and I. B. Dawid (1990), New Biol. 2, 556-565) [34].
  • Based on the presence of this element, we predicted in a previous report that activin receptor mRNA expression in embryos might be regulated by cytoplasmic polyadenylation (Simon and Richter, Mol. Cell. Biol. 14, 7867-7875, 1994) [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Richter

  • METHODS: The study involved 124 elderly hypertensive outpatients from two clinics near the epicenter of the Hanshin-Awaji earthquake (7.2 on the Richter scale) for whom ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and assessment of end-organ damage had been performed before the earthquake [36].
  • 1998 Curt P. Richter Award. The effect of hormone replacement therapy on cognitive function in elderly women [37].
  • Laparotomy showed that a Richter hernia had occurred in the third right sacral foramen [38].
  • Herniation of small bowel through a fascial defect (Richter hernia) created at laparoscopy is a rare complication, but it occurred in a 54-year-old woman after a laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy [39].
  • RGH-1756 (1-(2-methoxy-phenyl)-4-(4-[4-(6-imidazo[2,1-b]-thiazolyl)-phenoxy]-butyl)-piperazine dimethansulphonate) is a novel atypical antipsychotic candidate of Gedeon Richter Ltd. A new HPLC method has been developed and validated for the quantitative determination of RGH-1756 in dog and rat plasma [40].


  1. Genetic relatedness of lymphoid malignancies. Transformation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia as a model. Foon, K.A., Thiruvengadam, R., Saven, A., Bernstein, Z.P., Gale, R.P. Ann. Intern. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Experience with alemtuzumab plus rituximab in patients with relapsed and refractory lymphoid malignancies. Faderl, S., Thomas, D.A., O'Brien, S., Garcia-Manero, G., Kantarjian, H.M., Giles, F.J., Koller, C., Ferrajoli, A., Verstovsek, S., Pro, B., Andreeff, M., Beran, M., Cortes, J., Wierda, W., Tran, N., Keating, M.J. Blood (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. E1A 13S and 12S mRNA products made in Escherichia coli both function as nucleus-localized transcription activators but do not directly bind DNA. Ferguson, B., Krippl, B., Andrisani, O., Jones, N., Westphal, H., Rosenberg, M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. Mutational analysis of beta '260-309, a sigma 70 binding site located on Escherichia coli core RNA polymerase. Arthur, T.M., Anthony, L.C., Burgess, R.R. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Richter's hernia and Sir Frederick Treves: an original clinical experience, review, and historical overview. Steinke, W., Zellweger, R. Ann. Surg. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Psychiatric morbidity and posttraumatic symptoms among earthquake victims in primary care clinics. Yang, Y.K., Yeh, T.L., Chen, C.C., Lee, C.K., Lee, I.H., Lee, L.C., Jeffries, K.J. General hospital psychiatry. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Earthquake-related stress and cardiac mortality. Katsouyanni, K., Kogevinas, M., Trichopoulos, D. International journal of epidemiology. (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. The Nagel anomaloscope and seasonal variation of colour vision. Jordan, G., Mollon, J.D. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Unexpected, spontaneous conversion of a family of rats, from low-leukemic to high-leukemic inbred line. Dreyfuss, Y., Gross, L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. CD38 is a signaling molecule in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. Deaglio, S., Capobianco, A., Bergui, L., Dürig, J., Morabito, F., Dührsen, U., Malavasi, F. Blood (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Maturation-specific polyadenylation and translational control: diversity of cytoplasmic polyadenylation elements, influence of poly(A) tail size, and formation of stable polyadenylation complexes. Paris, J., Richter, J.D. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. Mitochondrial nitric-oxide synthase stimulation causes cytochrome c release from isolated mitochondria. Evidence for intramitochondrial peroxynitrite formation. Ghafourifar, P., Schenk, U., Klein, S.D., Richter, C. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Clinical examination of heparin-Ca in myocardial infarction patients. Páder, K., Kerkovits, G. Therapia Hungarica (English edition) (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Clinical perspectives of intravenous ketamine anaesthesia in peafowl (Pavo cristatus). Athar, M., Shakoor, A., Muhammad, G., Sarwar, M.N., Chaudhry, N.I. Acta Vet. Hung. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Concomitant Epstein-Barr virus-negative large B-cell lymphoma (Richter syndrome) and Epstein-Barr virus- positive B-cell lymphoproliferation after treatment with fludarabine and cyclophosphamide in a patient with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Compérat, E., Delmer, A., Le Tourneau, A., Molina, T.J., Diebold, J., Audouin, J. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Exercise-induced translocation of protein kinase C and production of diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid in rat skeletal muscle in vivo. Relationship to changes in glucose transport. Cleland, P.J., Appleby, G.J., Rattigan, S., Clark, M.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Effect of low- and high-virulence Yersinia enterocolitica strains on the inflammatory response of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Denecker, G., Tötemeyer, S., Mota, L.J., Troisfontaines, P., Lambermont, I., Youta, C., Stainier, I., Ackermann, M., Cornelis, G.R. Infect. Immun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. ADP binding induces long-distance structural changes in the beta polypeptide of the chloroplast ATP synthase. Mills, D.A., Seibold, S.A., Squier, T.C., Richter, M.L. Biochemistry (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Nucleotide sequence of the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA in diploid wheat, Triticum speltoides L. (Tausch) Gren. ex Richter (Gramineae). Chatterton, N.J., Hsiao, C., Asay, K.H., Wang, R.R., Jensen, K.B. Plant Mol. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Cytochrome c oxidase inhibition by N-retinyl-N-retinylidene ethanolamine, a compound suspected to cause age-related macula degeneration. Shaban, H., Gazzotti, P., Richter, C. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Rotation of cytochrome P-450. Complex formation of cytochrome P-450 with NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase in liposomes demonstrated by combining protein rotation with antibody-induced cross-linking. Gut, J., Richter, C., Cherry, R.J., Winterhalter, K.H., Kawato, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  22. Transformation of T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukaemia into a high-grade large T-cell lymphoma. Matutes, E., Wotherspoon, A.C., Parker, N.E., Osuji, N., Isaacson, P.G., Catovsky, D. Br. J. Haematol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Voltage-gated calcium channels are not involved in generation and propagation of spreading depression (SD) in the brainstem of immature rats. Richter, F., Lehmenkühler, A., Schaible, H.G. Neurosci. Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Evidence that XR family interspersed RNA may regulate translation in Xenopus oocytes. Liu, C., Smith, L.D. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Export of ribosomal subunits from resealed rat liver nuclear envelopes. Hassel, I., Cézanne, V., Treviño, C., Schlatter, H., Romero-Matuschek, I., Schmidt, A., Fasold, H. Eur. J. Biochem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Differential compartmentalization of vasopressin messenger RNA and neuropeptide within the rat hypothalamo-neurohypophysial axonal tracts: light and electron microscopic evidence. Trembleau, A., Morales, M., Bloom, F.E. Neuroscience (1996) [Pubmed]
  27. 1996 Curt P. Richter Award. Effects of viral infection on corticosterone secretion and glucocorticoid receptor binding in immune tissues. Miller, A.H., Spencer, R.L., Pearce, B.D., Pisell, T.L., Tanapat, P., Leung, J.J., Dhabhar, F.S., McEwen, B.S., Biron, C.A. Psychoneuroendocrinology (1997) [Pubmed]
  28. Decreased insulin action on muscle glucose transport after eccentric contractions in rats. Asp, S., Richter, E.A. J. Appl. Physiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. Studies on the adrenergic systems of the eye at the Wilmer Institute. Maumenee, A.E. Survey of ophthalmology. (1979) [Pubmed]
  30. Yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan radioimmunotherapy in Richter syndrome. Tsimberidou, A.M., Murray, J.L., O'Brien, S., Wierda, W.G., Keating, M.J. Cancer (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. Identification and characterization of two dermorphins from skin extracts of the Amazonian frog Phyllomedusa bicolor. Mignogna, G., Severini, C., Simmaco, M., Negri, L., Erspamer, G.F., Kreil, G., Barra, D. FEBS Lett. (1992) [Pubmed]
  32. Rotation and interaction with epoxide hydrase of cytochrome P-450 in proteoliposomes. Etter, H.U., Richter, C., Ohta, Y., Winterhalter, K.H., Sasabe, H., Kawato, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  33. The interaction of divalent copper and the microsomal electron transport system. A re-examination of the effects of copper chelates on the function of cytochrome P-450. Werringloer, J., Kawano, S., Chacos, N., Estabrook, R.W. J. Biol. Chem. (1979) [Pubmed]
  34. Three new members of the RNP protein family in Xenopus. Good, P.J., Rebbert, M.L., Dawid, I.B. Nucleic Acids Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  35. Cytoplasmic polyadenylation of activin receptor mRNA and the control of pattern formation in Xenopus development. Simon, R., Wu, L., Richter, J.D. Dev. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  36. Factors associated with the occurrence and magnitude of earthquake-induced increases in blood pressure. Kario, K., Matsuo, T., Shimada, K., Pickering, T.G. Am. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  37. 1998 Curt P. Richter Award. The effect of hormone replacement therapy on cognitive function in elderly women. Hogervorst, E., Boshuisen, M., Riedel, W., Willeken, C., Jolles, J. Psychoneuroendocrinology (1999) [Pubmed]
  38. Richter hernia in a sacral foramen: new site for richter hernia. Botsford, T.W. Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960) (1977) [Pubmed]
  39. Incarcerated hernia after laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy. Wasserman, S.A. The Journal of the American Association of Gynecologic Laparoscopists. (1994) [Pubmed]
  40. An HPLC/UV method for the determination of RGH-1756 in dog and rat plasma. Terjéki, E., Kapás, M. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. (2001) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities