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Chemical Compound Review

SureCN45726     1-[amino-[(4-chlorophenyl) amino]methyliden...

Synonyms: SureCN45727, SureCN45728, AG-B-30389, CTK6A9844, AC1L1J8U, ...
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Disease relevance of proguanil


Psychiatry related information on proguanil

  • The incidence rates of psychosis or panic attacks during current mefloquine exposure were 1.0/1000 person-years (95% CI 0.3-2.9) and 3.0/1000 person-years (95% CI 1.6-5.7), respectively, approximately 2-fold higher (statistically nonsignificant) than during current use of proguanil and/or chloroquine, or doxycycline [5].

High impact information on proguanil


Chemical compound and disease context of proguanil


Biological context of proguanil


Anatomical context of proguanil


Associations of proguanil with other chemical compounds


Gene context of proguanil


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of proguanil

  • The chloroguanide and dextromethorphan metabolic ratio determined from urine collection correlated with the corresponding metabolic ratio determined from plasma obtained 3 hours after oral administration [16].
  • METHODS: Thirty-six healthy male volunteers received single oral doses of 80 mg dextromethorphan and 200 mg chloroguanide during a three-period, randomized crossover study [16].
  • Capillary blood samples were collected on filter paper for determining both human CYP2C19 mutations by polymerase chain reaction and mutation-specific restriction enzyme digestion and blood concentrations of proguanil and its metabolites by high-performance liquid chromatography [4].
  • Our results indicate that sulfa drugs with short elimination half-lives deserve to be considered for use in combination with proguanil or chlorproguanil for malaria chemotherapy and possibly prophylaxis [29].
  • None of the 11 patients treated with proguanil were cured of malaria and their phenotype status did not affect the treatment outcome [30].


  1. Atovaquone and proguanil for Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Radloff, P.D., Philipps, J., Nkeyi, M., Hutchinson, D., Kremsner, P.G. Lancet (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Use of immunoglobulin gene rearrangements to show clonal lymphoproliferation in hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly. Bates, I., Bedu-Addo, G., Bevan, D.H., Rutherford, T.R. Lancet (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Intrinsic efficacy of proguanil against falciparum and vivax malaria independent of the metabolite cycloguanil. Kaneko, A., Bergqvist, Y., Takechi, M., Kalkoa, M., Kaneko, O., Kobayakawa, T., Ishizaki, T., Björkman, A. J. Infect. Dis. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Proguanil disposition and toxicity in malaria patients from Vanuatu with high frequencies of CYP2C19 mutations. Kaneko, A., Bergqvist, Y., Taleo, G., Kobayakawa, T., Ishizaki, T., Björkman, A. Pharmacogenetics (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. The risk of severe depression, psychosis or panic attacks with prophylactic antimalarials. Meier, C.R., Wilcock, K., Jick, S.S. Drug safety : an international journal of medical toxicology and drug experience. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Atovaquone-proguanil versus chloroquine-proguanil for malaria prophylaxis in non-immune travellers: a randomised, double-blind study. Malarone International Study Team. Høgh, B., Clarke, P.D., Camus, D., Nothdurft, H.D., Overbosch, D., Günther, M., Joubert, I., Kain, K.C., Shaw, D., Roskell, N.S., Chulay, J.D. Lancet (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. High frequencies of CYP2C19 mutations and poor metabolism of proguanil in Vanuatu. Kaneko, A., Kaneko, O., Taleo, G., Björkman, A., Kobayakawa, T. Lancet (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Long-term malaria prophylaxis with weekly mefloquine. Lobel, H.O., Miani, M., Eng, T., Bernard, K.W., Hightower, A.W., Campbell, C.C. Lancet (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Strategies for the prevention of malaria in travellers: comparison of drug regimens by means of risk-benefit analysis. Peto, T.E., Gilks, C.F. Lancet (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. Cycloguanil and its parent compound proguanil demonstrate distinct activities against Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites transformed with human dihydrofolate reductase. Fidock, D.A., Nomura, T., Wellems, T.E. Mol. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Efficacy and safety of atovaquone/proguanil compared with mefloquine for treatment of acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Thailand. Looareesuwan, S., Wilairatana, P., Chalermarut, K., Rattanapong, Y., Canfield, C.J., Hutchinson, D.B. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Malaria chemoprophylaxis using proguanil/dapsone combinations on the Thai-Cambodian border. Shanks, G.D., Edstein, M.D., Suriyamongkol, V., Timsaad, S., Webster, H.K. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Chemotherapy of experimental Echinococcus granulosus infection. Trials in CF1 mice and jirds (Meriones unguiculatus). Kammerer, W.S., Perez-Esandi, M.V. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1975) [Pubmed]
  14. CV8, a new combination of dihydroartemisinin, piperaquine, trimethoprim and primaquine, compared with atovaquone-proguanil against falciparum malaria in Vietnam. Giao, P.T., de Vries, P.J., Hung, l.e. .Q., Binh, T.Q., Nam, N.V., Kager, P.A. Trop. Med. Int. Health (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Slow chloroguanide metabolism in Tanzanians compared with white subjects and Asian subjects confirms a decreased CYP2C19 activity in relation to genotype. Herrlin, K., Massele, A.Y., Rimoy, G., Alm, C., Rais, M., Ericsson, O., Bertilsson, L., Gustafsson, L.L. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Assessment of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 activity in vivo in humans: a cocktail study with dextromethorphan and chloroguanide alone and in combination. Tennezé, L., Verstuyft, C., Becquemont, L., Poirier, J.M., Wilkinson, G.R., Funck-Brentano, C. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Comparison of chloroguanide and mephenytoin for the in vivo assessment of genetically determined CYP2C19 activity in humans. Partovian, C., Jacqz-Aigrain, E., Keundjian, A., Jaillon, P., Funck-Brentano, C. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. A mechanism for the synergistic antimalarial action of atovaquone and proguanil. Srivastava, I.K., Vaidya, A.B. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Inhibition by omeprazole of proguanil metabolism: mechanism of the interaction in vitro and prediction of in vivo results from the in vitro experiments. Funck-Brentano, C., Becquemont, L., Lenevu, A., Roux, A., Jaillon, P., Beaune, P. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. In vitro proguanil activation to cycloguanil by human liver microsomes is mediated by CYP3A isoforms as well as by S-mephenytoin hydroxylase. Birkett, D.J., Rees, D., Andersson, T., Gonzalez, F.J., Miners, J.O., Veronese, M.E. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Chloroquine-induced inhibition of the production of TNF, but not of IL-6, is affected by disruption of iron metabolism. Picot, S., Peyron, F., Donadille, A., Vuillez, J.P., Barbe, G., Ambroise-Thomas, P. Immunology (1993) [Pubmed]
  22. Effect of oral proguanil on human lymphocyte proliferation. Bygbjerg, I.C., Flachs, H. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  23. Transformation with human dihydrofolate reductase renders malaria parasites insensitive to WR99210 but does not affect the intrinsic activity of proguanil. Fidock, D.A., Wellems, T.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Identification of constitutive androstane receptor and glucocorticoid receptor binding sites in the CYP2C19 promoter. Chen, Y., Ferguson, S.S., Negishi, M., Goldstein, J.A. Mol. Pharmacol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Screening for mutations related to atovaquone/proguanil resistance in treatment failures and other imported isolates of Plasmodium falciparum in Europe. Wichmann, O., Muehlberger, N., Jelinek, T., Alifrangis, M., Peyerl-Hoffmann, G., Muhlen, M., Grobusch, M.P., Gascon, J., Matteelli, A., Laferl, H., Bisoffi, Z., Ehrhardt, S., Cuadros, J., Hatz, C., Gjorup, I., McWhinney, P., Beran, J., da Cunha, S., Schulze, M., Kollaritsch, H., Kern, P., Fry, G., Richter, J. J. Infect. Dis. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Evidence for the polymorphic oxidation of debrisoquine and proguanil in a New Zealand Maori population. Wanwimolruk, S., Pratt, E.L., Denton, J.R., Chalcroft, S.C., Barron, P.A., Broughton, J.R. Pharmacogenetics (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. Comparison of (S)-mephenytoin and proguanil oxidation in vitro: contribution of several CYP isoforms. Coller, J.K., Somogyi, A.A., Bochner, F. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Fluvoxamine inhibits the CYP2C19-catalysed metabolism of proguanil in vitro. Rasmussen, B.B., Nielsen, T.L., Brøsen, K. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  29. Adverse reactions to sulfa drugs: implications for malaria chemotherapy. Björkman, A., Phillips-Howard, P.A. Bull. World Health Organ. (1991) [Pubmed]
  30. Disposition of proguanil in Thai patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Edstein, M.D., Looareesuwan, S., Wilairatana, P., Vanijanonta, S., Kyle, D.E., Rieckmann, K.H. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1997) [Pubmed]
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