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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
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Disease relevance of Echinococcosis


High impact information on Echinococcosis


Chemical compound and disease context of Echinococcosis

  • In this work, extracts from bovine hydatid cysts were analyzed for the presence of factor H-like function, namely the cofactor activity for the breakdown of amidated bovine C3 by bovine factor I. Both this activity and antigenically detectable bovine factor H were found in most extracts [10].
  • Long-term chemotherapy of human alveolar echinococcosis with benzimidazole compounds (mebendazole, albendazole) has been shown to be primarily parasitostatic, but its curative (parasitocidal) efficacy is debated [11].
  • Here, we report the efficacy of amphotericin B in human alveolar echinococcosis [12].
  • Moreover, it can be hypothesized that each hydatid cyst has an intrinsic sensitivity to benzoimidazole carbamates [13].
  • This study suggests that a staggered dosing regimen of oxfendazole, and possibly other benzimidazoles, may be as efficacious as daily treatment regimens for hydatidosis while decreasing both the cost and adverse effects associated with daily dosing [14].

Biological context of Echinococcosis


Anatomical context of Echinococcosis

  • Proteolytic activity in hydatid cyst fluid, cyst membranes and protoscoleces of E. granulosus was analyzed by electrophoresis in gelatin-containing polyacrylamide gels, including characterization with a set of protease inhibitors [19].
  • The significantly increased IL-4 and the high IL-10 concentrations found in PBMC from many hydatid patients in this study are consistent with Th2 cell activation in human hydatidosis [20].
  • Induction of NO synthase in leukocytes from hydatidic patients was induced by stimulating these cells with a specific parasitic antigen, Antigen-5, as assessed by the increased levels of NO3- + NO2- in the range of 60-85 microM for patients with liver hydatidosis, as compared to the 20-25 microM detected in healthy controls [21].
  • An indirect haemagglutination (IHA) test was performed with chick red blood cells (RBC) on sera from 26 confirmed cases of echinococcosis and 45 control sera [22].
  • Most notably, there was a definite increase in the expression of IL-10 in CD8(+) lymphocytes from patients with alveolar echinococcosis [23].

Gene context of Echinococcosis

  • Collectively, the present study provides the first evidence that a TH2 immune response is gradually activated during the course of E. multilocularis infection, indicating a critical role for IL-5 in the manifestation of human alveolar echinococcosis [24].
  • Increased basal production of interleukin-10 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in human alveolar echinococcosis [25].
  • The significantly reduced levels of IGF-I (p<0.001), IGF-II (p=0.017) and IGFBP-3 and the increased presence of IGFBP-2 were found in patients with echinococcosis [26].
  • HLA-DRB1 allele in 35 patients with alveolar echinococcosis in Gansu Province of China [27].
  • Previously, we reported the presence of IFN, TNF-alpha and IL-6 activities in the serum of patients with liver and lung hydatidosis [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Echinococcosis


  1. Severe, reversible neutropenia during high-dose mebendazole therapy for echinococcosis. Levin, M.H., Weinstein, R.A., Axelrod, J.L., Schantz, P.M. JAMA (1983) [Pubmed]
  2. Mechanism of collagen network stabilization in human irreversible granulomatous liver fibrosis. Ricard-Blum, S., Bresson-Hadni, S., Guerret, S., Grenard, P., Volle, P.J., Risteli, L., Grimaud, J.A., Vuitton, D.A. Gastroenterology (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Hydroxypyridinium collagen cross-links in human liver fibrosis: study of alveolar echinococcosis. Ricard-Blum, S., Bresson-Hadni, S., Vuitton, D.A., Ville, G., Grimaud, J.A. Hepatology (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Albendazole treatment of pulmonary hydatid cysts in naturally infected sheep: a study with relevance to the treatment of hydatid cysts in man. Morris, D.L., Clarkson, M.J., Stallbaumer, M.F., Pritchard, J., Jones, R.S., Chinnery, J.B. Thorax (1985) [Pubmed]
  5. Basic and applied immunology in cestode infections: from Hymenolepis to Taenia and Echinococcus. Ito, A. Int. J. Parasitol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Percutaneous drainage compared with surgery for hepatic hydatid cysts. Khuroo, M.S., Wani, N.A., Javid, G., Khan, B.A., Yattoo, G.N., Shah, A.H., Jeelani, S.G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Histamine-release test in diagnosis of hydatidosis. Aceti, A., Celestino, D., Caferro, M., Pennica, A., Grilli, A., Sebastiani, A., Teggi, A., De Rosa, F. Lancet (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Albendazole as a potential treatment for human hydatidosis. Saimot, A.G., Meulemans, A., Cremieux, A.C., Giovanangeli, M.D., Hay, J.M., Delaitre, B., Coulaud, J.P. Lancet (1983) [Pubmed]
  9. Cetrimide-induced methaemoglobinaemia after surgical excision of hydatid cyst. Baraka, A., Yamut, F., Wakid, N. Lancet (1980) [Pubmed]
  10. Complement evasion by Echinococcus granulosus: sequestration of host factor H in the hydatid cyst wall. Díaz, A., Ferreira, A., Sim, R.B. J. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Long-term mebendazole therapy may be parasitocidal in alveolar echinococcosis. Ammann, R.W., Fleiner-Hoffmann, A., Grimm, F., Eckert, J. J. Hepatol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Salvage treatment with amphotericin B in progressive human alveolar echinococcosis. Reuter, S., Buck, A., Grebe, O., Nüssle-Kügele, K., Kern, P., Manfras, B.J. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Therapy of human hydatid disease with mebendazole and albendazole. Teggi, A., Lastilla, M.G., De Rosa, F. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Oxfendazole treatment of sheep with naturally acquired hydatid disease. Dueger, E.L., Moro, P.L., Gilman, R.H. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Albendazole treatment of echinococcosis in humans: effects on microsomal metabolism and drug tolerance. Steiger, U., Cotting, J., Reichen, J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. Serologic cross-reactions with sera from patients with echinococcosis and cysticercosis. Schantz, P.M., Shanks, D., Wilson, M. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1980) [Pubmed]
  17. Albendazole kinetics in patients with echinococcosis: delayed absorption and impaired elimination in cholestasis. Cotting, J., Zeugin, T., Steiger, U., Reichen, J. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Improvement of dissolution and bioavailability for mebendazole, an agent for human echinococcosis, by preparing solid dispersion with polyethylene glycol. Chiba, Y., Kohri, N., Iseki, K., Miyazaki, K. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Metalloproteinases in the larvae of Echinococcus granulosus. Marco, M., Nieto, A. Int. J. Parasitol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. In vitro production of cytokines by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from hydatid patients. Riganò, R., Profumo, E., Di Felice, G., Ortona, E., Teggi, A., Siracusano, A. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Production of nitric oxide (NO) in human hydatidosis: relationship between nitrite production and interferon-gamma levels. Touil-Boukoffa, C., Bauvois, B., Sancéau, J., Hamrioui, B., Wietzerbin, J. Biochimie (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Sensitized chick cells in the indirect haemagglutination test for echinococcosis. Parija, S.C., Mishra, S.R., Rao, R.S. J. Med. Microbiol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  23. T lymphocyte cytokine profile at a single cell level in alveolar Echinococcosis. Kilwinski, J., Jenne, L., Jellen-Ritter, A., Radloff, P., Flick, W., Kern, P. Cytokine (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Interleukin-5 is the predominant cytokine produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in alveolar echinococcosis. Sturm, D., Menzel, J., Gottstein, B., Kern, P. Infect. Immun. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Increased basal production of interleukin-10 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in human alveolar echinococcosis. Godot, V., Harraga, S., Deschaseaux, M., Bresson-Hadni, S., Gottstein, B., Emilie, D., Vuitton, D.A. Eur. Cytokine Netw. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. Insulin-like growth factors and their binding proteins in the circulation of patients with echinococcosis, trichinellosis and toxoplasmosis. Nedić, O., Nikolić, A.J., Baricević, I., Jovanović, B., Ilić, N. Clin. Chim. Acta (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. HLA-DRB1 allele in 35 patients with alveolar echinococcosis in Gansu Province of China. Li, F., Shi, Y., Shi, D., Vuitton, D.A., Craig, P.S. Chin. Med. J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Cysticercosis immunodiagnosis using 18- and 14-kilodalton proteins from Taenia crassiceps cysticercus antigens obtained by immunoaffinity chromatography. Espíndola, N.M., Iha, A.H., Fernandes, I., Takayanagui, O.M., Machado, L.d.o.s. .R., Livramento, J.A., Mendes Maia, A.A., Peralta, J.M., Vaz, A.J. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Immunological markers indicating the effectiveness of pharmacological treatment in human hydatid disease. Riganò, R., Profumo, E., Ioppolo, S., Notargiacomo, S., Ortona, E., Teggi, A., Siracusano, A. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. Liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection for monitoring mebendazole and hydroxymebendazole in echinococcosis patients. Oosterhuis, B., Wetsteyn, J.C., van Boxtel, C.J. Therapeutic drug monitoring. (1984) [Pubmed]
  31. The use of equilibrium density-gradient ultracentrifugation in the isolation and characterisation of glycoproteins with blood group P1 activity from sheep hydatid-cyst fluid. Cossey, A., Dimichiel, A., Dunstone, J. Eur. J. Biochem. (1979) [Pubmed]
  32. Pyruvate: an in vivo marker of cestodal infestation of the human brain on proton MR spectroscopy. Jayakumar, P.N., Srikanth, S.G., Chandrashekar, H.S., Kovoor, J.M., Shankar, S.K., Anandh, B. Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI. (2003) [Pubmed]
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