The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

AC1NSVLS     (2S,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3-amino-6...

Synonyms: SureCN595467
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of GALACTOSAMINE

  • The potential involvement of its counterreceptor, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), in the pathogenesis was investigated after administration of 100 micrograms/kg Salmonella abortus equi endotoxin (ET) in galactosamine-sensitized mice (Gal) [1].
  • A 6-hour EC treatment significantly increased the survival time and delayed the onset of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) in the Gal-intoxicated rabbits [2].
  • Alterations in epithelial barrier function and death in mice were prevented when Pseudomonas was pretreated with N-acetyl D-galactosamine (GalNAc), a binder of PA-I [3].
  • Thus RLC administration improved survival, reticuloendothelial function, DNA synthesis, and hepatocyte function after GAL-induced acute hepatic failure [4].
  • EcAF also aggregated 16 strains of oral bacteria including periodontopathic bacteria such as Porphyromonas (Bacteroides) gingivalis 381 and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans ATCC29522; however, those aggregations were not inhibited by GalNAc [5].

High impact information on GALACTOSAMINE


Chemical compound and disease context of GALACTOSAMINE

  • Treatment of C3Heb/FeJ mice with 700 mg/kg galactosamine (Gal) and 100 microg/kg Salmonella abortus equi ET increased caspase 3-like protease activity (Asp-Val-Glu-Asp-substrate) by 1730 +/- 140% at 6 h [9].

Biological context of GALACTOSAMINE

  • The results showed that two of three threonine residues on the MUC1 tandem repeat peptides were glycosylated by pancreatic tumor cell lysates at the following positons: GVTSAPDTRPAPGSTAPPAH (underlined T indicates position of GalNAc attachment) [10].
  • Upregulation of ABCRYS mRNA in HSC, following Gal-intoxication (3.5-fold) as well as by culturing the HSC on plastic (20-30-fold), was confirmed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction [11].
  • DNA synthesis (an indicator of cell proliferation) did not increase in any group 24 hours after GAL administration; however, it increased strikingly at 48 hours in the GAL-RLC groups [4].
  • The mucus-induced hemagglutination was specifically inhibited by a low concentration of N-acetyl D-galactosamine (GalNAc), and all of this activity was completely inactivated by heating at 56 degrees C for 30 min [12].
  • In the present study, lectin cytochemistry in combination with enzymatic treatments and quantitative analysis has been applied at light and electron microscopical levels to develop a simple methodology allowing the in situ discrimination between penultimate and terminal Gal/GalNAc residues [13].

Anatomical context of GALACTOSAMINE

  • The results from both in vivo studies and from the use of SLO-permeabilized cells showed that, while GalNAc addition occurred under conditions which block vesicular transport, both cytosol and ATP were prerequisites for the M protein oligosaccharides to acquire Golgi modifications [7].
  • Synthetic peptides corresponding to the human mucin MUC1 tandem repeat domain (20 residues) were glycosylated in vitro by using UDP-N-[3H]acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc) and lysates of pancreatic tumor cell lines [10].
  • RESULTS: Challenge with TNF-alpha/Gal significantly reduced sinusoidal perfusion, and increased leukocyte rolling, adhesion and liver enzymes [14].
  • The adherence of amebae to fixed human colonic mucosa was also GalNAc inhibitable [15].
  • The results of tests on Tn-polyagglutinable red blood cells with BS I + GalNAc anti-B and the purified isolectins BS I(A4) and BS I(B4) are also presented, and discussed in relation to current concepts on the structure of the Tn receptor [16].

Associations of GALACTOSAMINE with other chemical compounds

  • In some patients with IgAN, FACE analysis demonstrated a significant increase in the percentage of IgA1 O-glycan chains consisting of single N-acetyl galactosamine (GalNAc) units rather than the more usual galactosylated and sialylated forms [17].
  • However, Linomide had no protective effect when administered concomitantly with TNF-alpha/Gal [14].
  • For this purpose, mice were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)+D-galactosamine (Gal), and intravital microscopy of the liver microcirculation was conducted 6 h later [18].
  • Aldehyde-fixed rabbit erythrocytes (RRBC) were used as a solid-phase plasma opsonin affinity absorbant, and deoxyGlu and GalNAc were used in the eluting buffer to desorb several RRBC-binding plasma proteins [19].
  • This GalNAc polysaccharide, the major component of cyst wall filaments, forms, in conjunction with polypeptides, the outer cyst wall of Giardia [20].

Gene context of GALACTOSAMINE

  • Caspase 3-like protease activity and apoptosis was not induced by Gal/ET in ET-resistant mice (C3H/HeJ) [9].
  • To assess the functional importance of KC and MIP-2, C3Heb/FeJ mice were treated with Gal/ET and control IgG or a combination of anti-KC and anti-MIP-2 antibodies [21].
  • Thus Gal/ET induced massive, cytokine-dependent CXC chemokine formation in the liver [21].
  • Furthermore, there was no difference in liver injury between BALB/cJ wild-type and CXC receptor-2 gene knockout (CXCR2-/-) mice treated with Gal/ET [21].
  • In this paper, four human pp-GalNAc-Ts (pp-GalNAc-T1, T2, T3, and T4) were tested for their preferential orders of GalNAc incorporation into FITC-PTTTPITTTTK, a portion of the tandem repeat of human MUC2 [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GALACTOSAMINE

  • These 14 positive stools were analyzed with an ELISA that detects Gal/GalNAc lectin antigen and can distinguish between E. histolytica and E. dispar [23].
  • Twenty-four hours after 68% hepatectomy in normal rats, RLC was prepared and 4 ml of this solution (40 to 50 mg protein) was injected intraperitoneally in other animals at 6 or 24 hours after GAL administration [4].
  • The long-term survival rate was 19.4% in the GAL-vehicle (control) group, 26.7% in the GAL-treated rats given liver cytosol from normal rats, and 72.2% (p less than 0.01 compared with both groups) in rats given RLC even 24 hours after GAL administration [4].
  • Experiments using [3H]-labeled bacteria and scanning electron microscopy clearly showed that 10953 adhered to lymphocytes and that adherence was blocked by L-arginine+GalNAc greater than L-arginine much greater than GalNAc [24].


  1. Cytokine-induced upregulation of hepatic intercellular adhesion molecule-1 messenger RNA expression and its role in the pathophysiology of murine endotoxin shock and acute liver failure. Essani, N.A., Fisher, M.A., Farhood, A., Manning, A.M., Smith, C.W., Jaeschke, H. Hepatology (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. In vivo evaluation of a hollow fiber liver assist device. Jauregui, H.O., Mullon, C.J., Trenkler, D., Naik, S., Santangini, H., Press, P., Muller, T.E., Solomon, B.A. Hepatology (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. The key role of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA-I lectin on experimental gut-derived sepsis. Laughlin, R.S., Musch, M.W., Hollbrook, C.J., Rocha, F.M., Chang, E.B., Alverdy, J.C. Ann. Surg. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Effects of regenerating liver cytosol on drug-induced hepatic failure. Ohkawa, M., Hayashi, H., Chaudry, I.H., Clemens, M.G., Baue, A.E. Surgery (1985) [Pubmed]
  5. The mechanisms of Eikenella corrodens aggregation by salivary glycoprotein and the effect of the glycoprotein on oral bacterial aggregation. Ebisu, S., Nakae, H., Fukuhara, H., Okada, H. J. Periodont. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. A transfected sialyltransferase that is elevated in breast cancer and localizes to the medial/trans-Golgi apparatus inhibits the development of core-2-based O-glycans. Whitehouse, C., Burchell, J., Gschmeissner, S., Brockhausen, I., Lloyd, K.O., Taylor-Papadimitriou, J. J. Cell Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Characterization of the budding compartment of mouse hepatitis virus: evidence that transport from the RER to the Golgi complex requires only one vesicular transport step. Krijnse-Locker, J., Ericsson, M., Rottier, P.J., Griffiths, G. J. Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Parenchymal cell apoptosis as a signal for sinusoidal sequestration and transendothelial migration of neutrophils in murine models of endotoxin and Fas-antibody-induced liver injury. Lawson, J.A., Fisher, M.A., Simmons, C.A., Farhood, A., Jaeschke, H. Hepatology (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Activation of caspase 3 (CPP32)-like proteases is essential for TNF-alpha-induced hepatic parenchymal cell apoptosis and neutrophil-mediated necrosis in a murine endotoxin shock model. Jaeschke, H., Fisher, M.A., Lawson, J.A., Simmons, C.A., Farhood, A., Jones, D.A. J. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. N-acetylgalactosamine glycosylation of MUC1 tandem repeat peptides by pancreatic tumor cell extracts. Nishimori, I., Perini, F., Mountjoy, K.P., Sanderson, S.D., Johnson, N., Cerny, R.L., Gross, M.L., Fontenot, J.D., Hollingsworth, M.A. Cancer Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Alpha B-crystallin expression in human and rat hepatic stellate cells. Cassiman, D., Roskams, T., van Pelt, J., Libbrecht, L., Aertsen, P., Crabbé, T., Vankelecom, H., Denef, C. J. Hepatol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Incilaria mucus agglutinated human erythrocytes. Furuta, E., Takagi, T., Yamaguchi, K., Shimozawa, A. J. Exp. Zool. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Localization of penultimate carbohydrate residues in zona pellucida and acrosomes by means of lectin cytochemistry and enzymatic treatments. Avilés, M., Castells, M.T., Martínez-Menárguez, J.A., Abascal, I., Ballesta, J. Histochem. J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Protective effect of Linomide on TNF-alpha-induced hepatic injury. Klintman, D., Hedlund, G., Thorlacius, H. J. Hepatol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Adherence of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites to rat and human colonic mucosa. Ravdin, J.I., John, J.E., Johnston, L.I., Innes, D.J., Guerrant, R.L. Infect. Immun. (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. An anti-B reagent prepared from the alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-binding isolectins from Bandeiraea simplicifolia seeds. Judd, W.J., Murphy, L.A., Goldstein, I.J., Campbell, L., Nichols, M.E. Transfusion (1978) [Pubmed]
  17. Analysis of IgA1 O-glycans in IgA nephropathy by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis. Allen, A.C., Bailey, E.M., Barratt, J., Buck, K.S., Feehally, J. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Lymphocyte function antigen-1 mediates leukocyte adhesion and subsequent liver damage in endotoxemic mice. Li, X., Klintman, D., Weitz-Schmidt, G., Schramm, R., Thorlacius, H. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Immunorecognition in the freshwater bivalve, Corbicula fluminea. II. Isolation and characterization of a plasma opsonin with hemagglutinating activity. Yang, R., Yoshino, T.P. Dev. Comp. Immunol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. Regulation of carbohydrate metabolism during Giardia encystment. Jarroll, E.L., Macechko, P.T., Steimle, P.A., Bulik, D., Karr, C.D., van Keulen, H., Paget, T.A., Gerwig, G., Kamerling, J., Vliegenthart, J., Erlandsen, S. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Generation and functional significance of CXC chemokines for neutrophil-induced liver injury during endotoxemia. Dorman, R.B., Gujral, J.S., Bajt, M.L., Farhood, A., Jaeschke, H. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Distinct orders of GalNAc incorporation into a peptide with consecutive threonines. Kato, K., Takeuchi, H., Miyahara, N., Kanoh, A., Hassan, H., Clausen, H., Irimura, T. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Seroepidemiology of Entamoeba histolytica in a slum in northeastern Brazil. Braga, L.L., Lima, A.A., Sears, C.L., Newman, R.D., Wuhib, T., Paiva, C.A., Guerrant, R.L., Mann, B.J. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. A non-lectin-like mechanism by which Fusobacterium nucleatum 10953 adheres to and activates human lymphocytes. Tuttle, R.S., Strubel, N.A., Mourad, J., Mangan, D.F. Oral Microbiol. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities