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Gene Review

ACE  -  angiotensin I converting enzyme

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ACE1, Angiotensin-converting enzyme, CD143, DCP, DCP1, ...
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Disease relevance of ACE


Psychiatry related information on ACE


High impact information on ACE


Chemical compound and disease context of ACE

  • Variation in the DCP1 gene, encoding the angiotensin converting enzyme ACE, is not associated with increased susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease [11].
  • Ten of 26 patients with sepsis were given a combination of dexamethasone (0.15 mg/kg, intravenously, once on admission), colchicine (0.5 mg, orally, daily, for 3 days) and pentoxifylline (DCP) (400 mg, orally, daily, for 3 days), together with best medical therapy [12].
  • In particular, the inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme, also known as kininase II, can protect against cardiac ischemia, putatively via accumulation of bradykinin [13].
  • Possible evidence for this phenomenon was obtained by demonstrating that the hyperpermeability caused by the ascites could be blocked by Trasylol (known to inhibit bradykinin synthesis) and potentiated by captopril (a kininase II inhibitor) [14].
  • HYD/ACET and MOR produced miosis [6].

Biological context of ACE


Anatomical context of ACE


Associations of ACE with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of ACE

  • There was no significant difference in the DCP1 allele or genotype frequencies between cases and controls when stratified by gender and APOE epsilon4 status [25].
  • Northern blot analysis revealed that the ace1 gene was expressed much higher than the ace2 in all examined body parts [26].
  • Serum tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels were undetectable at 24 h compared with about 4 IU/ml (mean) in 16 similar control patients who were not given DCP (P < 0.06) [12].
  • Angiotensin converting enzyme (kininase II) mRNA production and enzymatic activity in human peripheral blood monocytes are induced by GM-CSF but not by other cytokines [27].

Other interactions of ACE

  • The major part of the kininase II activity on intact cells was attributed to ACE activity, the minor part to NEP activity [28].
  • The presence of the AGTR1 C allele is a strong independent determinant of aortic stiffness, whereas presence of the ACE 1 allele is weakly associated with increased stiffness [29].
  • CONCLUSION: The increased levels of kininogen fractions, kallikreins, and kininase II in patient plasma and CSF indicate overactivity of the kinin system, suggesting intense kinin production [30].
  • The common Arabian ancestors of the Egyptians, Spanish, Saudi, and Emirate had created a common pattern of distribution of some allelic variants ( DCP1 and CETP) [31].
  • We found that a soluble form of ACE2, but not of the related enzyme ACE1, blocked association of the S1 domain with Vero E6 cells [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ACE


  1. Over-expression of angiotensin converting enzyme-1 augments cardiac hypertrophy in transgenic rats. Tian, X.L., Pinto, Y.M., Costerousse, O., Franz, W.M., Lippoldt, A., Hoffmann, S., Unger, T., Paul, M. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Role of neutral endopeptidase and kininase II on substance P-induced increase in nasal obstruction in patients with allergic rhinitis. Lurie, A., Nadel, J.A., Roisman, G., Siney, H., Dusser, D.J. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Response of arterial blood pressure, plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone concentration to long-term administration of captopril in patients with severe, treatment-resistant malignant hypertension. McCaa, C.S., Langford, H.G., Cushman, W.C., McCaa, R.E. Clin. Sci. (1979) [Pubmed]
  4. The ectopeptidases CD10, CD13, CD26, and CD143 are upregulated in gastric cancer. Carl-McGrath, S., Lendeckel, U., Ebert, M., Wolter, A.B., Roessner, A., Röcken, C. Int. J. Oncol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. APOE promoter, ACE1 and CYP46 polymorphisms and beta-amyloid in Alzheimer's disease. Chalmers, K.A., Culpan, D., Kehoe, P.G., Wilcock, G.K., Hughes, A., Love, S. Neuroreport (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Profiling the subjective, psychomotor, and physiological effects of a hydrocodone/acetaminophen product in recreational drug users. Zacny, J.P., Gutierrez, S., Bolbolan, S.A. Drug and alcohol dependence. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Sequence variation in the human angiotensin converting enzyme. Rieder, M.J., Taylor, S.L., Clark, A.G., Nickerson, D.A. Nat. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Variation in DCP1, encoding ACE, is associated with susceptibility to Alzheimer disease. Kehoe, P.G., Russ, C., McIlory, S., Williams, H., Holmans, P., Holmes, C., Liolitsa, D., Vahidassr, D., Powell, J., McGleenon, B., Liddell, M., Plomin, R., Dynan, K., Williams, N., Neal, J., Cairns, N.J., Wilcock, G., Passmore, P., Lovestone, S., Williams, J., Owen, M.J. Nat. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Accentuated vascular and endocrine response to SQ 20881 in hypertension. Williams, G.H., Hollenberg, N.K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  10. Host cell invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi is potentiated by activation of bradykinin B(2) receptors. Scharfstein, J., Schmitz, V., Morandi, V., Capella, M.M., Lima, A.P., Morrot, A., Juliano, L., Müller-Esterl, W. J. Exp. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Variation in the DCP1 gene, encoding the angiotensin converting enzyme ACE, is not associated with increased susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease. Carbonell, J., Allen, R., Kalsi, G., McQuillin, A., Livingston, G., Katona, C., Walker, Z., Katz, A., Rands, G., Stevens, T., Crossan, I., Curtis, D., Gurling, H. Psychiatr. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Triple anti-TNF-alpha therapy in early sepsis: a preliminary report. Schattner, A., el-Hador, I., Hahn, T., Landau, Z. J. Int. Med. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Increased kallikrein expression protects against cardiac ischemia. Pinto, Y.M., Bader, M., Pesquero, J.B., Tschöpe, C., Scholtens, E., van Gilst, W.H., Buikema, H. FASEB J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. The kallikrein-kinin system, but not vascular endothelial growth factor, plays a role in the increased vascular permeability associated with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Kobayashi, H., Okada, Y., Asahina, T., Gotoh, J., Terao, T. J. Mol. Endocrinol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Kininase II-type enzymes. Their putative role in muscle energy metabolism. Dragović, T., Minshall, R., Jackman, H.L., Wang, L.X., Erdös, E.G. Diabetes (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Two putative active centers in human angiotensin I-converting enzyme revealed by molecular cloning. Soubrier, F., Alhenc-Gelas, F., Hubert, C., Allegrini, J., John, M., Tregear, G., Corvol, P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. No association between DCP1 genotype and late-onset Alzheimer disease. Buss, S., Müller-Thomsen, T., Hock, C., Alberici, A., Binetti, G., Nitsch, R.M., Gal, A., Finckh, U. Am. J. Med. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Effect of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensins on human sperm functions. Köhn, F.M., Müller, C., Drescher, D., Neukamm, C., el Mulla, K.F., Henkel, R., Hägele, W., Hinsch, E., Habenicht, U.F., Schill, W.B. Andrologia (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (CD143) is abundantly expressed by dendritic cells and discriminates human monocyte-derived dendritic cells from acute myeloid leukemia-derived dendritic cells. Danilov, S.M., Sadovnikova, E., Scharenborg, N., Balyasnikova, I.V., Svinareva, D.A., Semikina, E.L., Parovichnikova, E.N., Savchenko, V.G., Adema, G.J. Exp. Hematol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and neprilysin hydrolyze neuropeptides: a brief history, the beginning and follow-ups to early studies. Skidgel, R.A., Erdös, E.G. Peptides (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Antihypertensive and renal effects of captopril in relation to renin activity and bradykinin-induced vasodilation. Kiowski, W., van Brummelen, P., Hulthén, L., Amann, F.W., Bühler, F.R. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1982) [Pubmed]
  22. Renal vascular response to interruption of the renin-angiotensin system in normal man. Hollenberg, N.K., Williams, G.H., Taub, K.J., Ishikawa, I., Brown, C., Adams, D.F. Kidney Int. (1977) [Pubmed]
  23. Influenza infection causes airway hyperresponsiveness by decreasing enkephalinase. Jacoby, D.B., Tamaoki, J., Borson, D.B., Nadel, J.A. J. Appl. Physiol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. Neutral endopeptidase modulates endothelin-1-induced airway smooth muscle contraction in guinea-pig trachea. Di Maria, G.U., Katayama, M., Borson, D.B., Nadel, J.A. Regul. Pept. (1992) [Pubmed]
  25. Association between angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism and Alzheimer's disease in a Chinese population. Zhang, J.W., Li, X.Q., Zhang, Z.X., Chen, D., Zhao, H.L., Wu, Y.N., Qu, Q.M. Dementia and geriatric cognitive disorders. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Mutations of acetylcholinesterase1 contribute to prothiofos-resistance in Plutella xylostella (L.). Lee, D.W., Choi, J.Y., Kim, W.T., Je, Y.H., Song, J.T., Chung, B.K., Boo, K.S., Koh, Y.H. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2007) [Pubmed]
  27. Angiotensin converting enzyme (kininase II) mRNA production and enzymatic activity in human peripheral blood monocytes are induced by GM-CSF but not by other cytokines. Lazarus, D.S., Aschoff, J., Fanburg, B.L., Lanzillo, J.J. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Bradykinin degrading activity in cultured human endothelial cells. Graf, K., Gräfe, M., Auch-Schwelk, W., Baumgarten, C.R., Bossaller, C., Fleck, E. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  29. Influence of angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene polymorphisms on aortic stiffness in normotensive and hypertensive patients. Benetos, A., Gautier, S., Ricard, S., Topouchian, J., Asmar, R., Poirier, O., Larosa, E., Guize, L., Safar, M., Soubrier, F., Cambien, F. Circulation (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Kinins and cytokines in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with neuropsychiatric lupus. Dellalibera-Joviliano, R., Dos Reis, M.L., Cunha, F.d.e. .Q., Donadi, E.A. J. Rheumatol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Allele and genotype frequencies of polymorphic DCP1, CETP, ADRB2, and HTR2A in the Egyptian population. Hamdy, S.I., Hiratsuka, M., Narahara, K., El-Enany, M., Moursi, N., Ahmed, M.S., Mizugaki, M. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is a functional receptor for the SARS coronavirus. Li, W., Moore, M.J., Vasilieva, N., Sui, J., Wong, S.K., Berne, M.A., Somasundaran, M., Sullivan, J.L., Luzuriaga, K., Greenough, T.C., Choe, H., Farzan, M. Nature (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Isoforms of angiotensin I-converting enzyme in the development and differentiation of human testis and epididymis. Pauls, K., Metzger, R., Steger, K., Klonisch, T., Danilov, S., Franke, F.E. Andrologia (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. Molecular, biochemical and histochemical characterization of two acetylcholinesterase cDNAs from the German cockroach Blattella germanica. Kim, J.I., Jung, C.S., Koh, Y.H., Lee, S.H. Insect Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  35. Enhanced expression of the local haematopoietic bone marrow renin-angiotensin system in polycythemia rubra vera. Aksu, S., Beyazit, Y., Haznedaroglu, I.C., Kekilli, M., Canpinar, H., Misirlioğlu, M., Uner, A., Tuncer, S., Sayinalp, N., Büyükaşik, Y., Goker, H., Ozcebe, O.I. J. Int. Med. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  36. Biochemical evidence that an S431F mutation in acetylcholinesterase-1 of Aphis gossypii mediates resistance to pirimicarb and omethoate. Benting, J., Nauen, R. Pest Manag. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. New mass spectrometric assay for angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activity. Elased, K.M., Cunha, T.S., Gurley, S.B., Coffman, T.M., Morris, M. Hypertension (2006) [Pubmed]
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