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Gene Review

ACE2  -  angiotensin I converting enzyme 2

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ACE-related carboxypeptidase, ACEH, Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, Angiotensin-converting enzyme homolog, Metalloprotease MPROT15, ...
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Disease relevance of ACE2


Psychiatry related information on ACE2

  • In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that common genetic variants in the ACE2 gene might impact on MI in females, and may possibly interact with alcohol consumption to affect the risk of CHD and MI in Chinese males [8].
  • Mental health problems after tsunami disaster in Aceh and Nias; immediate responses and future programs [9].

High impact information on ACE2


Chemical compound and disease context of ACE2


Biological context of ACE2

  • These kinetic data highlight that the flux of peptides through the RAS is complex, with the levels of ACE, ACE2 and NEP dictating whether vasoconstriction or vasodilation will predominate [15].
  • We have examined the kinetics of angiotensin peptide cleavage by full-length human ACE, the separate N- and C-domains of ACE, the homologue of ACE, ACE2, and NEP (neprilysin) [15].
  • ACE2 is a type I transmembrane protein, with an extracellular N-terminal domain containing the active site and a short intracellular C-terminal tail [11].
  • An alignment of the ACE2 peptide substrates reveals a consensus sequence of: Pro-X((1-3 residues))-Pro-Hydrophobic, where hydrolysis occurs between proline and the hydrophobic amino acid [16].
  • The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-related carboxypeptidase, ACE2, is a type I integral membrane protein of 805 amino acids that contains one HEXXH + E zinc-binding consensus sequence [17].

Anatomical context of ACE2


Associations of ACE2 with chemical compounds

  • ACEH/ACE2 is a novel mammalian metallocarboxypeptidase and a homologue of angiotensin-converting enzyme insensitive to ACE inhibitors [19].
  • Ang II was cleaved efficiently by ACE2 to Ang (1-7) (kcat/K(m) of 2.2x10(6) M(-1) x s(-1)) and was cleaved by NEP (kcat/K(m) of 2.2x10(5) M(-1) x s(-1)) to several degradation products [15].
  • The coronaviral surface spike protein S is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein that mediates initial host binding via the cell surface receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), as well as the subsequent membrane fusion events required for cell entry [20].
  • ACE2 also efficiently hydrolyzes des-Arg(9)-bradykinin (k(cat)/K(m) = 1.3 x 10(5) m(-1) s(-1)), but it does not hydrolyze bradykinin [16].
  • A point mutation at aspartic acid 454 abolished association of the full S1 domain and of the 193-residue fragment with ACE2 [21].

Enzymatic interactions of ACE2


Co-localisations of ACE2


Regulatory relationships of ACE2


Other interactions of ACE2

  • Infection of human airway epithelia by SARS coronavirus is associated with ACE2 expression and localization [27].
  • Evaluation of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), its homologue ACE2 and neprilysin in angiotensin peptide metabolism [15].
  • By using inhibitors with differing potency toward different members of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) family of proteases, we identified ADAM17 as a candidate mediator of stimulated ACE2 shedding [11].
  • ACE-1 is an amphiphilic tetramer associated with a hydrophobic non-catalytic subunit, analogous to vertebrate T enzymes, whereas ACE-2 and ACE-3 are glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked amphiphilic dimers [28].
  • RESULTS: There was higher ACE and chymase mRNA expression and mast cell density in failing than in control myocardium and no changes in ACE2 expression were detected. eNOS mRNA levels were lower in failing hearts [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ACE2



  1. Receptor and viral determinants of SARS-coronavirus adaptation to human ACE2. Li, W., Zhang, C., Sui, J., Kuhn, J.H., Moore, M.J., Luo, S., Wong, S.K., Huang, I.C., Xu, K., Vasilieva, N., Murakami, A., He, Y., Marasco, W.A., Guan, Y., Choe, H., Farzan, M. EMBO J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. ACE2: from vasopeptidase to SARS virus receptor. Turner, A.J., Hiscox, J.A., Hooper, N.M. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Efficient replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus in mouse cells is limited by murine angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. Li, W., Greenough, T.C., Moore, M.J., Vasilieva, N., Somasundaran, M., Sullivan, J.L., Farzan, M., Choe, H. J. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Myocardial infarction increases ACE2 expression in rat and humans. Burrell, L.M., Risvanis, J., Kubota, E., Dean, R.G., MacDonald, P.S., Lu, S., Tikellis, C., Grant, S.L., Lew, R.A., Smith, A.I., Cooper, M.E., Johnston, C.I. Eur. Heart J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Polymorphisms of ACE2 gene are associated with essential hypertension and antihypertensive effects of Captopril in women. Fan, X., Wang, Y., Sun, K., Zhang, W., Yang, X., Wang, S., Zhen, Y., Wang, J., Li, W., Han, Y., Liu, T., Wang, X., Chen, J., Wu, H., Hui, R. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (2007) [Pubmed]
  6. Synergistic expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 in human renal tissue and confounding effects of hypertension on the ACE to ACE2 ratio. Wakahara, S., Konoshita, T., Mizuno, S., Motomura, M., Aoyama, C., Makino, Y., Kato, N., Koni, I., Miyamori, I. Endocrinology (2007) [Pubmed]
  7. Urinary mRNA expression of ACE and ACE2 in human type 2 diabetic nephropathy. Wang, G., Lai, F.M., Lai, K.B., Chow, K.M., Kwan, C.H., Li, K.T., Szeto, C.C. Diabetologia (2008) [Pubmed]
  8. Association study of ACE2 (angiotensin I-converting enzyme 2) gene polymorphisms with coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction in a Chinese Han population. Yang, W., Huang, W., Su, S., Li, B., Zhao, W., Chen, S., Gu, D. Clin. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Mental health problems after tsunami disaster in Aceh and Nias; immediate responses and future programs. Irmansyah, S.J. Seishin shinkeigaku zasshi = Psychiatria et neurologia Japonica. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is an essential regulator of heart function. Crackower, M.A., Sarao, R., Oudit, G.Y., Yagil, C., Kozieradzki, I., Scanga, S.E., Oliveira-dos-Santos, A.J., da Costa, J., Zhang, L., Pei, Y., Scholey, J., Ferrario, C.M., Manoukian, A.S., Chappell, M.C., Backx, P.H., Yagil, Y., Penninger, J.M. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha convertase (ADAM17) mediates regulated ectodomain shedding of the severe-acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2). Lambert, D.W., Yarski, M., Warner, F.J., Thornhill, P., Parkin, E.T., Smith, A.I., Hooper, N.M., Turner, A.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. CD209L (L-SIGN) is a receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Jeffers, S.A., Tusell, S.M., Gillim-Ross, L., Hemmila, E.M., Achenbach, J.E., Babcock, G.J., Thomas, W.D., Thackray, L.B., Young, M.D., Mason, R.J., Ambrosino, D.M., Wentworth, D.E., Demartini, J.C., Holmes, K.V. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. SARS coronavirus, but not human coronavirus NL63, utilizes cathepsin L to infect ACE2-expressing cells. Huang, I.C., Bosch, B.J., Li, F., Li, W., Lee, K.H., Ghiran, S., Vasilieva, N., Dermody, T.S., Harrison, S.C., Dormitzer, P.R., Farzan, M., Rottier, P.J., Choe, H. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Identification of critical determinants on ACE2 for SARS-CoV entry and development of a potent entry inhibitor. Han, D.P., Penn-Nicholson, A., Cho, M.W. Virology (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Evaluation of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), its homologue ACE2 and neprilysin in angiotensin peptide metabolism. Rice, G.I., Thomas, D.A., Grant, P.J., Turner, A.J., Hooper, N.M. Biochem. J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Hydrolysis of biological peptides by human angiotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase. Vickers, C., Hales, P., Kaushik, V., Dick, L., Gavin, J., Tang, J., Godbout, K., Parsons, T., Baronas, E., Hsieh, F., Acton, S., Patane, M., Nichols, A., Tummino, P. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. ACE2 X-ray structures reveal a large hinge-bending motion important for inhibitor binding and catalysis. Towler, P., Staker, B., Prasad, S.G., Menon, S., Tang, J., Parsons, T., Ryan, D., Fisher, M., Williams, D., Dales, N.A., Patane, M.A., Pantoliano, M.W. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Tissue distribution of ACE2 protein, the functional receptor for SARS coronavirus. A first step in understanding SARS pathogenesis. Hamming, I., Timens, W., Bulthuis, M.L., Lely, A.T., Navis, G.J., van Goor, H. J. Pathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. ACEH/ACE2 is a novel mammalian metallocarboxypeptidase and a homologue of angiotensin-converting enzyme insensitive to ACE inhibitors. Turner, A.J., Tipnis, S.R., Guy, J.L., Rice, G., Hooper, N.M. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Structural Basis of Neutralization by a Human Anti-severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Spike Protein Antibody, 80R. Hwang, W.C., Lin, Y., Santelli, E., Sui, J., Jaroszewski, L., Stec, B., Farzan, M., Marasco, W.A., Liddington, R.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. A 193-amino acid fragment of the SARS coronavirus S protein efficiently binds angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. Wong, S.K., Li, W., Moore, M.J., Choe, H., Farzan, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. A novel angiotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase (ACE2) converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1-9. Donoghue, M., Hsieh, F., Baronas, E., Godbout, K., Gosselin, M., Stagliano, N., Donovan, M., Woolf, B., Robison, K., Jeyaseelan, R., Breitbart, R.E., Acton, S. Circ. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Glomerular localization and expression of Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and Angiotensin-converting enzyme: implications for albuminuria in diabetes. Ye, M., Wysocki, J., William, J., Soler, M.J., Cokic, I., Batlle, D. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Expression cloning of functional receptor used by SARS coronavirus. Wang, P., Chen, J., Zheng, A., Nie, Y., Shi, X., Wang, W., Wang, G., Luo, M., Liu, H., Tan, L., Song, X., Wang, Z., Yin, X., Qu, X., Wang, X., Qing, T., Ding, M., Deng, H. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Mutations of acetylcholinesterase1 contribute to prothiofos-resistance in Plutella xylostella (L.). Lee, D.W., Choi, J.Y., Kim, W.T., Je, Y.H., Song, J.T., Chung, B.K., Boo, K.S., Koh, Y.H. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2007) [Pubmed]
  26. Angiotensin-converting enzyme II in the heart and the kidney. Danilczyk, U., Penninger, J.M. Circ. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Infection of human airway epithelia by SARS coronavirus is associated with ACE2 expression and localization. Jia, H.P., Look, D.C., Hickey, M., Shi, L., Pewe, L., Netland, J., Farzan, M., Wohlford-Lenane, C., Perlman, S., McCray, P.B. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Nematode acetylcholinesterases are encoded by multiple genes and perform non-overlapping functions. Selkirk, M.E., Lazari, O., Hussein, A.S., Matthews, J.B. Chem. Biol. Interact. (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Increased expression of the renin-angiotensin system and mast cell density but not of angiotensin-converting enzyme II in late stages of human heart failure. Batlle, M., Roig, E., Perez-Villa, F., Lario, S., Cejudo-Martin, P., García-Pras, E., Ortiz, J., Roqué, M., Orús, J., Rigol, M., Heras, M., Ramírez, J., Jimenez, W. J. Heart Lung Transplant. (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. The novel angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) homolog, ACE2, is selectively expressed by adult Leydig cells of the testis. Douglas, G.C., O'Bryan, M.K., Hedger, M.P., Lee, D.K., Yarski, M.A., Smith, A.I., Lew, R.A. Endocrinology (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 as a novel target for gene therapy for hypertension. Katovich, M.J., Grobe, J.L., Huentelman, M., Raizada, M.K. Exp. Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Mass spectrometry for the molecular imaging of angiotensin metabolism in kidney. Grobe, N., Elased, K.M., Cool, D.R., Morris, M. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. (2012) [Pubmed]
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