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Chemical Compound Review

REMACEMIDE     2-amino-N-(1,2- diphenylpropan-2- yl)ethanamide

Synonyms: Ramacemide, Remacemida, Remacemidum, CHEMBL25843, SureCN151148, ...
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Disease relevance of FPL 12924


Psychiatry related information on FPL 12924


High impact information on FPL 12924


Chemical compound and disease context of FPL 12924


Biological context of FPL 12924


Anatomical context of FPL 12924

  • METHODS: One hundred seventy-one patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery by a single cardiothoracic surgical team were randomized to receive remacemide (up to 150 mg every 6 hours) or placebo from 4 days before to 5 days after their bypass procedure [10].
  • The blocking actions of the remacemide enantiomers and their des-glycinates were investigated in whole cell voltage-clamp recordings from cultured rat hippocampal neurons and in binding studies with [3H]dizocilpine in rat forebrain membranes [18].
  • The effects of the anticonvulsant remacemide [(+/-)-2-amino-N-(1-methyl-1,2-diphenylethyl)-acetamide hydrochloride] and its metabolite AR-R12495AA [(+/-)-1-methyl-1, 2-diphenylethylamine-monohydrochloride] on primary afferent synaptic transmission were assessed in the young rat spinal cord in vitro [14].
  • Na(+) channel effects of remacemide and desglycinyl-remacemide in rat cortical synaptosomes [19].
  • Data indicate that remacemide enters the brain by passive diffusion and undergoes deglycination at the blood-brain barrier or within the brain to give FPL12495 [20].

Associations of FPL 12924 with other chemical compounds


Gene context of FPL 12924


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of FPL 12924

  • Doses of 200 mg BID or higher attained the putative neuroprotective plasma concentrations of remacemide predicted from animal models (250 to 600 ng/mL) [2].
  • Oxcarbazepine and remacemide have high hepatic clearance and are biotransformed to hydroxy and deglycine metabolites, respectively, with the activity of their metabolites contributing to the antiepileptic activity of the parent drug after oral administration, despite high first-pass effect metabolism [12].
  • There were no important effects on behaviour and on spectral content of the background EEG, suggesting that remacemide has little side effects [3].
  • The electrophysiological actions of the putative anticonvulsants remacemide hydrochloride and its des-glycine metabolite ARL 12495AA were examined using whole-cell recordings from CA1 hippocampal neurons in adult rat brain in vitro [15].
  • A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed and validated for the determination of both remacemide (a novel anticonvulsant and cerebroprotectant) and an active, major metabolite in human plasma [29].


  1. Antiparkinsonian effects of remacemide hydrochloride, a glutamate antagonist, in rodent and primate models of Parkinson's disease. Greenamyre, J.T., Eller, R.V., Zhang, Z., Ovadia, A., Kurlan, R., Gash, D.M. Ann. Neurol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Remacemide hydrochloride: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, safety and tolerability study in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Dyker, A.G., Lees, K.R. Stroke (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Effects of remacemide and its metabolite FPL 12495 on spike-wave discharges, electroencephalogram and behaviour in rats with absence epilepsy. van Luijtelaar, E.L., Coenen, A.M. Neuropharmacology (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Lamotrigine and remacemide protect striatal neurons against in vitro ischemia: an electrophysiological study. Calabresi, P., Marti, M., Picconi, B., Saulle, E., Costa, C., Centonze, D., Pisani, F., Bernardi, G. Exp. Neurol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Effect of remacemide hydrochloride on subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced vasospasm in rabbits. Zuccarello, M., Lewis, A.I., Upputuri, S., Farmer, J.B., Anderson, D.K. J. Neurotrauma (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Environmental, pharmacological, and genetic modulation of the HD phenotype in transgenic mice. Schilling, G., Savonenko, A.V., Coonfield, M.L., Morton, J.L., Vorovich, E., Gale, A., Neslon, C., Chan, N., Eaton, M., Fromholt, D., Ross, C.A., Borchelt, D.R. Exp. Neurol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Biological profile of the metabolites and potential metabolites of the anticonvulsant remacemide. Palmer, G.C., Murray, R.J., Wilson, T.C., Eisman, M.S., Ray, R.K., Griffith, R.C., Napier, J.J., Fedorchuk, M., Stagnitto, M.L., Garske, G.E. Epilepsy Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Coenzyme Q10 and remacemide hydrochloride ameliorate motor deficits in a Huntington's disease transgenic mouse model. Schilling, G., Coonfield, M.L., Ross, C.A., Borchelt, D.R. Neurosci. Lett. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Chronic drug exposures during development in nonhuman primates: models of brain dysfunction in humans. Paule, M.G. Front. Biosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Neuroprotection of the brain during cardiopulmonary bypass: a randomized trial of remacemide during coronary artery bypass in 171 patients. Arrowsmith, J.E., Harrison, M.J., Newman, S.P., Stygall, J., Timberlake, N., Pugsley, W.B. Stroke (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. The desglycinyl metabolite of remacemide hydrochloride is neuroprotective in cultured rat cortical neurons. Black, M.A., Tremblay, R., Mealing, G.A., Durkin, J.P., Whitfield, J.F., Morley, P. J. Neurochem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Comparative pharmacokinetics of the newer antiepileptic drugs. Bialer, M. Clinical pharmacokinetics. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Therapeutic effects of coenzyme Q10 and remacemide in transgenic mouse models of Huntington's disease. Ferrante, R.J., Andreassen, O.A., Dedeoglu, A., Ferrante, K.L., Jenkins, B.G., Hersch, S.M., Beal, M.F. J. Neurosci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Actions of the anticonvulsant remacemide metabolite AR-R12495AA on afferent-evoked spinal synaptic transmission in vitro and on models of acute and chronic inflammation in the rat. Asghar, A.U., Hasan, S.S., King, A.E. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Electrophysiological effects of the anticonvulsant remacemide hydrochloride and its metabolite ARL 12495AA on rat CA1 hippocampal neurons in vitro. Norris, S.K., King, A.E. Neuropharmacology (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Mutual interaction between remacemide hydrochloride and carbamazepine: two drugs with active metabolites. Leach, J.P., Blacklaw, J., Jamieson, V., Jones, T., Richens, A., Brodie, M.J. Epilepsia (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Quantitation of the novel anticonvulsant remacemide in rat and dog plasma and urine: application of the plasma methodology to measure the plasma protein binding of remacemide. Wilson, T.C., Eisman, M.S., Machulskis, G.E. J. Chromatogr. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Block of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor by remacemide and its des-glycine metabolite. Subramaniam, S., Donevan, S.D., Rogawski, M.A. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Na(+) channel effects of remacemide and desglycinyl-remacemide in rat cortical synaptosomes. Santangeli, S., Sills, G.J., Thompson, G.G., Brodie, M.J. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Brain uptake and biotransformation of remacemide hydrochloride, a novel anticonvulsant. Heyn, H., McCarthy, D.J., Curry, S.H., Eisman, M.S., Anders, M.W. Drug Metab. Dispos. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Update on the mechanism of action of antiepileptic drugs. Meldrum, B.S. Epilepsia (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Remacemide hydrochloride and ARL 15896AR lack abuse potential: additional differences from other uncompetitive NMDA antagonists. Hudzik, T.J., Freedman, L., Palmer, G.C. Epilepsia (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Progress report on new antiepileptic drugs. A summary of the Second Eilat Conference. Stables, J.P., Bialer, M., Johannessen, S.I., Kupferberg, H.J., Levy, R.H., Loiseau, P., Perucca, E. Epilepsy Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. Evaluation of a pharmacokinetic interaction between remacemide hydrochloride and phenobarbitone in healthy males. Hooper, W.D., Eadie, M.J., Blakey, G.E., Lockton, J.A., Manun'Ebo, M. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. Induction of rodent hepatic drug-metabolizing enzyme activities by the novel anticonvulsant remacemide hydrochloride. Riley, R.J., Lambert, C., Cooper, A.E., Richmond, H., Hall, M., Jordan, M.C., Logan, C.J., Clark, B. Drug Metab. Dispos. (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. Neurochemical actions of the desglycinyl metabolite of remacemide hydrochloride (ARL 12495AA) in mouse brain. Leach, J.P., Sills, G.J., Butler, E., Forrest, G., Thompson, G.G., Brodie, M.J. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Neuroprotective actions of 2-amino-N-(1,2-diphenylethyl)-acetamide hydrochloride (FPL 13950) in animal models of hypoxia and global ischemia. Palmer, G.C., Cregan, E.C., Borrelli, A.R., Harris, E.W., Stagnitto, M.L., Colombo, P., Kaiser, F.C., Murray, R.J., Griffith, R.C., Strand, J.C. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Coenzyme Q10 as a possible treatment for neurodegenerative diseases. Beal, M.F. Free Radic. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. High-performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous measurement of remacemide (a novel anticonvulsant and cerebroprotectant) and an active metabolite in human plasma. Flynn, J.W., O'Brien, J.E. J. Chromatogr. (1992) [Pubmed]
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