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Chemical Compound Review

Dysprosium-157     dysprosium

Synonyms: AC1O5WU2, 157Dy, 14981-97-6, Dysprosium, isotope of mass 157
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Disease relevance of dysprosium


Psychiatry related information on dysprosium

  • After overnight food deprivation, they were fed a test meal labeled 67Zn-CPP or 67ZnCl2 (4 g Zn-free diet + 0.12 mg 67Zn) with 0.5 mg Dysprosium (Dy) as a fecal marker [6].

High impact information on dysprosium

  • One hundred eight knees of 93 patients with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis and persistent synovitis of the knee were treated with an intraarticular injection of 270 mCi of dysprosium 165 bound to ferric hydroxide macroaggregate [1].
  • 23Na spectra in the presence of a paramagnetic shift reagent (dysprosium tripolyphosphate) consisted of two resonances, an unshifted one corresponding to intracellular Na+ and a shifted one corresponding to Na+ in the extracellular medium, including the periplasm [7].
  • 23Na NMR, in combination with an anionic paramagnetic shift reagent dysprosium bis(tripolyphosphate), has been used to study intracellular Na+ in Rana oocytes, ovulated eggs, and early cleavage embryos [8].
  • The anionic frequency shift reagent, dysprosium (III) tripolyphosphate, which does not permeate intact cells, when added to suspensions of intact adult rat cardiac myocytes, alters the NMR frequency of extracellular sodium ions, [Na+]o, leaving that of intracellular ions, [Na+]i, unaffected [9].
  • Isotope ratios were measured in urine and feces, and total zinc and dysprosium were measured in fecal samples [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of dysprosium


Biological context of dysprosium


Anatomical context of dysprosium


Associations of dysprosium with other chemical compounds

  • During NMR studies, the serosal bath consisted of aerated 2.4 mM HCO3 amphibian Ringer's (pH 8.1) made up with 15% D2O containing the shift reagent, dysprosium tripolyphosphate (1 mM) [22].
  • The DyLB microspheres reacted nonuniformly in SSF with the majority of lithium and boron being dissolved, whereas nearly all of the dysprosium (>99.7%) remained in the reacted microspheres [11].
  • Sequential equimolar doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mmol/kg of ionic dysprosium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid dimeglumine ([NMG]2DyDTPA) or nonionic dysporosium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-bis-methylamide (DyDTPA-BMA) (sprodiamide injection) were administered intravenously into the left jugular vein as a bolus [23].
  • RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Gadolinium (Gd) and dysprosium (Dy) analogues, chelated with HP-DO3A, were compared at both 0.5- and 1.0-mol/L concentrations for efficacy in first-pass brain studies on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 1.5 tesla (T) [24].
  • Masticated boli and wet-sieved masticated leaves (ML) and stems (MS) retained by a 4.0-mm sieve and feces retained by a .063-mm sieve were mordanted with chromium or marked with erbium, ytterbium, or dysprosium, respectively [25].

Gene context of dysprosium

  • Incubation with Dy3+, PPP5- or Dy(TTHA)3- caused little or no structural effects but dysprosium was found to penetrate slowly inside tubules with Dy(TTHA)3-. Both Dy3+ and Dy(PPP)2(7-) penetrated rapidly inside cells [21].
  • Based on the concentration-dependent effect of dysprosium on the lifetime of cytochrome c, it is possible to make distance estimates from the EPR active center to Dy3+ [26].
  • Some of the lanthanides, the rare earth metals, lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), neodymium (Nd), samarium (Sm), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), erbium (Er) and ytterbium (Yb) prolonged the clotting time of normal human plasma in a dose-dependent manner when clotting was induced either by thromboplastin or by kaolin in the presence of cephalin and Ca2+ [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of dysprosium

  • Sequential echo-planar imaging was then used in conjunction with bolus injections of the magnetic susceptibility contrast agent, dysprosium DTPA-BMA, to characterize the underlying cerebrovascular perfusion deficits [28].
  • Neutron activation analysis with dysprosium as a tracer was employed to determine quantitatively the microleakage around the restorations of an experimental hydrophobic composite, as well as a commercial composite [29].
  • The intracellular sodium concentration [( Na+]i) of dog kidney cortical tubules was monitored by flame photometry and 23Na NMR using dysprosium tripolyphosphate as shift reagent [30].
  • The proximal tubules were then purified and concentrated by Percoll density gradient centrifugation and then resuspended in buffer containing dysprosium tripolyphosphate shift reagent [31].
  • The curves for tissue signal intensity versus time during first pass return artifactually to near baseline after Gd chelate injection (when SSFP imaging techniques are used), a differentiating feature from results with the Dy chelate [24].


  1. Treatment of rheumatoid synovitis of the knee with intraarticular injection of dysprosium 165-ferric hydroxide macroaggregates. Sledge, C.B., Zuckerman, J.D., Zalutsky, M.R., Atcher, R.W., Shortkroff, S., Lionberger, D.R., Rose, H.A., Hurson, B.J., Lankenner, P.A., Anderson, R.J. Arthritis Rheum. (1986) [Pubmed]
  2. Delineation of acute myocardial infarction with dysprosium DTPA-BMA: influence of dose of magnetic susceptibility contrast medium. Saeed, M., Wendland, M.F., Yu, K.K., Higgins, C.B. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. MR guidance of targeted injections into border and core of scarred myocardium in pigs. Saeed, M., Martin, A.J., Lee, R.J., Weber, O., Revel, D., Saloner, D., Higgins, C.B. Radiology. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Toxicity of dysprosium shift reagents in the isolated perfused rat kidney. Endre, Z.H., Allis, J.L., Radda, G.K. Magnetic resonance in medicine : official journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine / Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Early detection of perfusion deficits caused by regional cerebral ischemia in cats. T2-weighted magnetic susceptibility MRI using a nonionic dysprosium contrast agent. Rocklage, S.M., Moseley, M.E., Kucharczyk, J., Norman, D., Quay, S.C. Investigative radiology. (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Absorption of zinc from dietary casein phosphopeptide complex with zinc in rats given a soybean protein-based diet. Matsui, T., Okumura, H., Yano, H. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Measurement of intracellular sodium concentration and sodium transport in Escherichia coli by 23Na nuclear magnetic resonance. Castle, A.M., Macnab, R.M., Shulman, R.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. NMR studies of intracellular sodium ions in amphibian oocytes, ovulated eggs, and early embryos. Gupta, R.K., Kostellow, A.B., Morrill, G.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  9. NMR studies of intracellular sodium ions in mammalian cardiac myocytes. Wittenberg, B.A., Gupta, R.K. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  10. Dysprosium as a nonabsorbable fecal marker in studies of zinc homeostasis. Sheng, X.Y., Hambidge, K.M., Krebs, N.F., Lei, S., Westcott, J.E., Miller, L.V. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. In vitro and in vivo dissolution behavior of a dysprosium lithium borate glass designed for the radiation synovectomy treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Conzone, S.D., Brown, R.F., Day, D.E., Ehrhardt, G.J. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Comparison of dysprosium DTPA BMA and superparamagnetic iron oxide particles as susceptibility contrast agents for perfusion imaging of regional cerebral ischemia in the rat. Haraldseth, O., Jones, R.A., Müller, T.B., Fahlvik, A.K., Oksendal, A.N. Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. AUR Memorial Award. Identification of myocardial cell death in reperfused myocardial injury using dual mechanisms of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Geschwind, J.F., Wendland, M.F., Saeed, M., Lauerma, K., Derugin, N., Higgins, C.B. Academic radiology. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Dysprosium-bearing red cells as potential transverse relaxation agents for MRI. Johnson, K.M., Tao, J.Z., Kennan, R.P., Gore, J.C. Magnetic resonance in medicine : official journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine / Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. A 7Li NMR study of visibility, spin relaxation, and transport in normal human erythrocytes. Gullapalli, R.P., Hawk, R.M., Komoroski, R.A. Magnetic resonance in medicine : official journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine / Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. Low molecular weight lanthanide contrast agents: in vitro studies of mechanisms of action. Fossheim, S., Saebø, K.B., Fahlvik, A.K., Rongved, P., Klaveness, J. Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Kinetics of [103Ru]phenanthroline and dysprosium particulate markers in the rumen of steers. Dixon, R.M., Kennelly, J.J., Milligan, L.P. Br. J. Nutr. (1983) [Pubmed]
  18. Effect of magnetic susceptibility contrast medium on myocardial signal intensity with fast gradient-recalled echo and spin-echo MR imaging: initial experience in humans. Sakuma, H., O'Sullivan, M., Lucas, J., Wendland, M.F., Saeed, M., Dulce, M.C., Watson, A., Bleyl, K.L., LaFrance, N.D., Higgins, C.B. Radiology. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Sodium influxes in renal epithelial LLC-PK1/Cl4 cells monitored by 23Na NMR. Jans, A.W., Willem, R., Kellenbach, E.R., Kinne, R.K. Magnetic resonance in medicine : official journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine / Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. Intravascular susceptibility agent effects on tissue transverse relaxation rates in vivo. Johnson, K.M., Tao, J.Z., Kennan, R.P., Gore, J.C. Magnetic resonance in medicine : official journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine / Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Monitoring of the effects of dysprosium shift reagents on cell suspensions. Boulanger, Y., Fleser, A., Amarouche, R., Ammann, H., Bergeron, M., Vinay, P. NMR in biomedicine. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Changes in intracellular sodium during the hydroosmotic response to vasopressin. Brem, A.S., Matheson, K.L., Pacholski, M., Inman, K., Lawler, R. Kidney Int. (1991) [Pubmed]
  23. Comparison of cardiovascular response to ionic and nonionic magnetic resonance susceptibility contrast agents. Saeed, M., Li, H.T., Wendland, M.F., Knollmann, F., Higgins, C.B. Investigative radiology. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Choice of metal ion and formulation concentration for first-pass brain perfusion studies with magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 tesla. Runge, V.M., Wells, J.W. Investigative radiology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. Whole-tract digesta kinetics and comparison of techniques for the estimation of fecal output in steers fed coastal bermudagrass hay at four levels of intake. Luginbuhl, J.M., Pond, K.R., Burns, J.C. J. Anim. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. Effect of dysprosium on the spin-lattice relaxation time of cytochrome c and cytochrome a. Blum, H., Leigh, J.S., Ohnishi, T. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1980) [Pubmed]
  27. Anticoagulant action of rare earth metals. Funakoshi, T., Furushima, K., Shimada, H., Kojima, S. Biochem. Int. (1992) [Pubmed]
  28. Diffusion/perfusion MR imaging of acute cerebral ischemia. Kucharczyk, J., Mintorovitch, J., Asgari, H.S., Moseley, M. Magnetic resonance in medicine : official journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine / Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. (1991) [Pubmed]
  29. Neutron activation analysis of microleakage around a hydrophobic composite restorative. Douglas, W.H., Chen, C.J., Craig, R.G. J. Dent. Res. (1980) [Pubmed]
  30. Variable NMR visibility of intracellular sodium induced by Na(+)-substrate cotransport in dog cortical tubules. Ammann, H., Boulanger, Y., Vinay, P. Magnetic resonance in medicine : official journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine / Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. (1990) [Pubmed]
  31. The influence of acetazolamide and amlodipine on the intracellular sodium content of rat proximal tubular cells. Wong, P.S., Barclay, P.L., Newman, M.J., Johns, E.J. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1994) [Pubmed]
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