The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

SAMARIUM     samarium

Synonyms: samario, ACMC-1BK0L, AG-G-95698, CHEBI:33374, KST-1A1798, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of samarium


High impact information on samarium

  • The four EF hands of the protein are arranged in a compact array that contrasts with the dumbbell shape of calmodulin and troponin C. A calcium ion is bound to EF hand 3, while EF hand 2 can bind samarium but not calcium in this crystal form [6].
  • A flow system using permanent samarium cobalt magnets effects the rapid and efficient removal of "magnetic" tumour cells from bone marrow [7].
  • The crystal structure of the trimeric carbohydrate recognition domain and neck domain of SP-A was solved to 2.1-A resolution with multiwavelength anomalous dispersion phasing from samarium [8].
  • In contrast to suggestions for samarium mediated reactions, the cyclization was shown to be thermodynamically favorable in agreement with earlier kinetic studies [9].
  • On day 1, three meals were given with 57Fe (1 mg per meal) plus samarium (0.33 mg per meal); on day 2, identical meals (taken with a calcium supplement to reduce iron bioavailability) were given with equivalent amounts of 58Fe-labeled iron and ytterbium; on day 3, a well-absorbed reference dose of 54Fe (3 mg) was given with 1 mg Dy [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of samarium


Biological context of samarium

  • After washing the streptavidin-coated plate, we added 10 microL of undiluted urine or mixed standard to the coated wells, followed by the addition of 100 microL of assay buffer containing the labeled reactants (i.e., europium-labeled PG and samarium-labeled anti-idiotype recognizing the binding site of the antibody to EG) [14].
  • The Europium/Samarium fluorescence pattern is specific for each of the three genotypes (G/G, G/A, A/A) and clearly separates the three genotypes [15].
  • A first oxalamidino complex of samarium via reduction-coupling of carbodiimine: synthesis and molecular structure of [eta4-C2(NR)4][(MeC5H4)2Sm(HMPA)]2.2THF (R = Pr i, Cy) [16].
  • A glycosylation protocol based on activation of glycosyl 2-pyridyl sulfones with samarium triflate [17].
  • Total syntheses of (+)-cytisine, (-)-kuraramine, (-)-isokuraramine, and (-)-jussiaeiine A were achieved via a samarium diiodide-promoted reductive deamination reaction, followed by simultaneous recyclization of a proline derivative to give the corresponding delta-lactam derivative, as a key step [18].

Anatomical context of samarium

  • Samarium oxide was first detected in the small intestine 60 +/- 5 min after its ingestion; it reached the colon after 280 +/- 13 min and it was completely absent from the small intestine at 360 +/- 26 min [19].
  • It was possible to differentiate the specific release from the three target cell lines because the emission lines of the europium, samarium and terbium complexes formed in the enhancer solution are well separated from each other [20].
  • Neodymium iron boron and samarium cobalt thermoceptors of various shapes and sizes were placed into the cerebral cortex through a burr hole, then directed with the drive magnet [21].
  • In these isolated mitochondria, samarium chloride was found to be a potent blocker of transport compared to previously reported sulfhydryl-based inhibitors [22].
  • Samarium 153Sm lexidronam concentrates in bone tissue and has a metastatic lesion: normal bone ratio of 4 [5].

Associations of samarium with other chemical compounds

  • We measured europium and samarium fluorescence, using a gated plate fluorometer with appropriate emission filters [14].
  • The assay is based on DNA amplification of four fragments containing the mutations (delta F508, G1717-->A, G542X, R553X, 3905 insertion T, W1282X, and N1303K) by PCR, followed by hybridization with short, allele-specific oligonucleotide probes labeled with europium, terbium, or samarium chelates [23].
  • A novel samarium diiodide (SmI2) promoted intramolecular cyclization of beta-ketoisothiocyanate, derived from alpha,beta-unsaturated esters and ammonium thiocyanate led to alpha-hydroxythiolactams and/or thiolactams in high yields [24].
  • Asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of aryl ketones catalyzed by salt-free two samarium centers supported by a chiral multidentate alkoxy ligand [25].
  • By the synergistic catalysis of samarium ion and mercaptan, a series of 5-oxoalkanals was converted to (substituted) delta-lactones in efficient and stereoselective manners [26].

Gene context of samarium

  • Diffraction data were collected on a copper rotating-anode X-ray generator from one native UCK2 crystal and a single samarium-derivative crystal [27].
  • The CEA concentration was determined by measuring the solution fluorescence of 643 nm from the samarium-labeled SA-BSA [28].
  • Reduction is facile for a number of alkoxy groups that can complex samarium effectively but is not observed with TBS or benzyl protecting groups [29].
  • Radical/polar crossover reactions of precursors 24-29 promoted by samarium diiodide in the presence of HMPA and acetone allow access to the fully functionalized BCD ring system of penitrem D [30].
  • Carbene-catalyzed acyloin condensation of 7, followed by acetylation and samarium iodide reduction, gave linear precursor (2S,7S)-alpha,omega-diamino-4-oxosuberate 11, which was converted to N-(Boc)aminopyrrolizidin-2-one carboxylic acid 1 by a reductive amination/lactam cyclization sequence [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of samarium


  1. Pronounced therapeutic effect of samarium 153-ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonate in an orthotopic human osteosarcoma tibial tumor model. Winderen, M., Kjønniksen, I., Fodstad, O. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Synthesis of ferrocenyl alkenes, dienes, and enynes via samarium diiodide promoted tandem addition and dehydration of ferrocenyl carbonyls with halides. Jong, S.J., Fang, J.M. J. Org. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Successful use of Samarium 153 for emergency treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation due to metastatic hormone refractory prostate cancer. Ruffion, A., Manel, A., Valignat, C., Lopez, J.G., Perrin-Fayolle, O., Perrin, P. J. Urol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Immunomagnetic bone marrow purging of common acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells: suitability of BioMag particles. Trickett, A.E., Ford, D.J., Lam-Po-Tang, P.R., Vowels, M.R. Bone Marrow Transplant. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Samarium 153Sm lexidronam. Lamb, H.M., Faulds, D. Drugs & aging. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Three-dimensional structure of recoverin, a calcium sensor in vision. Flaherty, K.M., Zozulya, S., Stryer, L., McKay, D.B. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Removal of neuroblastoma cells from bone marrow with monoclonal antibodies conjugated to magnetic microspheres. Treleaven, J.G., Gibson, F.M., Ugelstad, J., Rembaum, A., Philip, T., Caine, G.D., Kemshead, J.T. Lancet (1984) [Pubmed]
  8. Crystal structure of trimeric carbohydrate recognition and neck domains of surfactant protein A. Head, J.F., Mealy, T.R., McCormack, F.X., Seaton, B.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. A combined theoretical and experimental study of efficient and fast titanocene-catalyzed 3-exo cyclizations. Friedrich, J., Dolg, M., Gansäuer, A., Geich-Gimbel, D., Lauterbach, T. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Rare earth elements as nonabsorbable fecal markers in studies of iron absorption. Fairweather-Tait, S.J., Minihane, A.M., Eagles, J., Owen, L., Crews, H.M. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Gemcitabine radiosensitization after high-dose samarium for osteoblastic osteosarcoma. Anderson, P.M., Wiseman, G.A., Erlandson, L., Rodriguez, V., Trotz, B., Dubansky, S.A., Albritton, K. Clin. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Positron emitting 18F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose: potential hot new therapy. Mortimer, J.E., Taylor, M.E. Breast Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Uptake of ethylenediamine tetramethylene phosphonic acid in normal bone after multiple applications. A non-human primate study. Dormehl, I.C., Louw, W.K., Schneeweiss, F.H., Milner, R., Schmitt, G., Carl, U., Croft, S.A. Arzneimittel-Forschung. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Monitoring ovarian function by the simultaneous time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay of two urinary steroid metabolites. Barnard, G., Kohen, F. Clin. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. A fast and robust dual-label nonradioactive oligonucleotide ligation assay for detection of factor V Leiden. Chakravarty, A., Hansen, T.S., Hørder, M., Kristensen, S.R. Thromb. Haemost. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. A first oxalamidino complex of samarium via reduction-coupling of carbodiimine: synthesis and molecular structure of [eta4-C2(NR)4][(MeC5H4)2Sm(HMPA)]2.2THF (R = Pr i, Cy). Deng, M., Yao, Y., Zhang, Y., Shen, Q. Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. A glycosylation protocol based on activation of glycosyl 2-pyridyl sulfones with samarium triflate. Chang, G.X., Lowary, T.L. Org. Lett. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Syntheses of (+)-cytisine, (-)-kuraramine, (-)-isokuraramine, and (-)-jussiaeiine A. Honda, T., Takahashi, R., Namiki, H. J. Org. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Release of 5-ASA from Pentasa in patients with Crohn's disease of the small intestine. Larouche, J., Morais, J., Picard, M., Lambert, C., Spénard, J., Landriault, H., Kennedy, G., Poitras, P. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Simultaneous measurement of natural killer cell cytotoxicity against each of three different target cell lines. Blomberg, K. J. Immunol. Methods (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Magnetic movement of a brain thermoceptor. Howard, M.A., Grady, M.S., Ritter, R.C., Gillies, G.T., Quate, E.G., Molloy, J.A. Neurosurgery (1989) [Pubmed]
  22. The use of yeast mitochondria to study the properties of wild-type and mutant human mitochondrial ornithine transporter. Morizono, H., Woolston, J.E., Colombini, M., Tuchman, M. Mol. Genet. Metab. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Simple triple-label detection of seven cystic fibrosis mutations by time-resolved fluorometry. Heinonen, P., Iitiä, A., Torresani, T., Lövgren, T. Clin. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Intramolecular, reductive cyclization of beta-ketoisothiocyanates promoted by using samarium diiodide. Cho, M.S., Lee, I.S., Kang, S.H., Kim, Y.H. Chemistry (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany) (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of aryl ketones catalyzed by salt-free two samarium centers supported by a chiral multidentate alkoxy ligand. Ohno, K., Kataoka, Y., Mashima, K. Org. Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Stereoselective synthesis of delta-lactones from 5-oxoalkanals via one-pot sequential acetalization, Tishchenko reaction, and lactonization by cooperative catalysis of samarium Ion and mercaptan. Hsu, J.L., Fang, J.M. J. Org. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Structure of human uridine-cytidine kinase 2 determined by SIRAS using a rotating-anode X-ray generator and a single samarium derivative. Appleby, T.C., Larson, G., Cheney, I.W., Walker, H., Wu, J.Z., Zhong, W., Hong, Z., Yao, N. Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Simultaneous determination of alpha-fetoprotein and carcinoembryonic antigen in human serum by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay. Matsumoto, K., Yuan, J., Wang, G., Kimura, H. Anal. Biochem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. The first directed reduction of beta-alkoxy ketones to anti-1,3-diol monoethers: identification of spectator and director alkoxy groups. Keck, G.E., Wager, C.A. Org. Lett. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Radical and palladium-catalyzed cyclizations to cyclobutenes: an entry to the BCD ring system of penitrem D. Rivkin, A., González-López de Turiso, F., Nagashima, T., Curran, D.P. J. Org. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. Efficient synthesis of enantiopure pyrrolizidinone amino acid. Dietrich, E., Lubell, W.D. J. Org. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. Europium and samarium as labels in time-resolved immunofluorometric assay of follitropin. Bador, R., Déchaud, H., Claustrat, F., Desuzinges, C. Clin. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  33. Body composition analysis by DEXA by using dynamically changing samarium filtration. Gotfredsen, A., Baeksgaard, L., Hilsted, J. J. Appl. Physiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  34. Approaches to the artificial heart. Invited speaker. Pierce, W.S., Myers, J.L., Donachy, J.H., Rosenberg, G., Landis, D.L., Prophet, G.A., Snyder, A.J. Surgery (1981) [Pubmed]
  35. Co-fluorescence of europium and samarium in time-resolved fluorimetric immunoassays. Xu, Y.Y., Hemmilä, I., Mukkala, V.M., Holttinen, S., Lövgren, T. The Analyst. (1991) [Pubmed]
  36. Samarium Sm-153 lexidronam for the palliation of bone pain associated with metastases. Serafini, A.N. Cancer (2000) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities