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Gene Review

LIAS  -  lipoic acid synthetase

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: HUSSY-01, LAS, LIP1, LS, Lip-syn, ...
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Disease relevance of LIAS

  • The proposed criteria are based only on QRSd, because late potentials (VRMS and LAS) did not discriminate patients with sudden death [1].
  • Expression of HIV in lymph node cells of LAS patients. Immunohistology, in situ hybridization, and identification of target cells [2].
  • A significant correlation was found between the values of two parameters (QRS and LAS length) and the delay between the first ventricular arrhythmia and the examination (r = 0.39 and 0.42 respectively, P < 0.01) [3].
  • HHV-6 titers late in LAS were similar to those in AIDS patients [4].
  • MepA and its homologues in other proteobacteria share overall structural similarity with d-Ala-d-Ala metallopeptidases and local similarity around the active site with lysostaphin-type enzymes, which has prompted the classification of these enzymes as LAS enzymes [5].

High impact information on LIAS

  • Biotin synthase and lipoate synthase are SAM-dependent [4Fe-4S] proteins that catalyze the insertion of sulfur into unactivated C-H bonds, which are cleaved by the 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical from SAM [6].
  • In vitro effect of foscarnet on expansion of T-cells from people with LAS and AIDS [7].
  • The results have been correlated with the histologic phases of LAS and with the germinal center lysis detected using DRC-1 MAb directed against follicular dendritic reticulum cells (FDRC) [2].
  • In addition, insulin binding to fibroblasts of LAS and LA2 exhibited a rightward shift of the competition curve, suggesting reduced receptor affinity [ED50, 35 and 50 ng/mL (5845 and 8350 pmol/L); normal, 1-3 ng/mL (167-501 pmol/L)] [8].
  • In 2 of the lipoatrophic siblings (LA1 and LA3) and in the sibling with insulin resistance but no lipoatrophy (LAS), a unique variant BamHI site was detected using a probe to the alpha-subunit region [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of LIAS

  • We have studied the effect of lysine acetylsalicylate (LAS; Aspegic), a soluble salt of aspirin, on motor deficits in transgenic mice expressing a human superoxide dismutase SOD1 mutation (Gly-93 --> Ala), an animal model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) [9].
  • The patients had to treat two migraine attacks with LAS-MCP (1620 mg lysine acetylsalicylate--the equivalent of 900 mg aspirin--combined with 10 mg metoclopramide) or placebo [10].
  • Sixty-four patients had endometriosis and adhesions vaporized with a CO2 laser (LAS) and were prospectively compared with a control group (CON) of 44 patients who had laparoscopy [11].
  • Serum thymidine kinase (TK), measured using Prolifigen TK-REA, from AB Sangtec Medical, was investigated in 24 HIV seropositive patients without immunological alterations, 26 seropositives with immunological alterations, 125 LAS, 25 ARC, and 20 AIDS [12].
  • We have now observed in these same plasma samples that the concentrations of lipid-associated sialic acid (LAS) are also inversely correlated with the ALF activities and, therefore, directly correlated with ovarian cancer susceptibility [13].

Biological context of LIAS

  • LAS enzymes contain a single divalent cation in the active site, which is tetracoordinated in the crystal structures [5].
  • Conversely, NHL developing in 7 patients with either asymptomatic HIV-seropositivity or LAS, more often presented as disseminated disease both in nodal and extranodal sites, with Burkitt's-type histology [14].
  • End-diastolic volume and left ventricular stroke volume are increased in the supine compared with upright position, but the contribution of long-axis (LAS) and short-axis shortening (SAS) to these changes with change in posture has not been established [15].
  • LAS increased more in the lateral part of the mitral annulus than in the septal part [7.7 +/- 2.6 vs. 4.0 +/- 2.8 mm (P < 0.006)], which implies that the more spherical form, in the supine position, induces more stretch at the lateral free wall than in the ventricular septum [15].
  • Dot-blot hybridization using LAS and MOP cDNA probes specific for L and S RNA segments revealed a genotype consisting of the L RNA of MOP and the S RNA of LAS (MOP/LAS reassortant) [16].

Anatomical context of LIAS

  • The insulin receptor concentration in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphocytes was about 30% of normal in all three lipoatrophic siblings (LA1, LA2, and LA3) and was 55% of normal in the nonlipoatrophic sibling (LAS) [8].
  • KU-BL-1 was found to be a putative human lipoic acid synthetase with a metal-binding site, CXXXCXXC, that was expressed in bladder cancer cell lines and most bladder cancer tissues, as well as normal bladder mucosa and testis tissues [17].
  • After coinfection of Vero cells with LAS and MOP viruses some phenotypic reassortants which produced small plaques and were not lethal for outbred mice were isolated and plaque-purified [16].
  • We subcloned a human osteosarcoma cell line (SaOS2) into subpopulations expressing high (HAS) and low (LAS) levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) [18].
  • Although not a first-line clinical test, MR particularly in conjunction with LAS noninvasively provides accurate anatomical definition of the peripheral lymphatic system [19].

Associations of LIAS with chemical compounds

  • Receptor autophosphorylation determined using Triton X-100 extracts of the fibroblasts was decreased in LA1 and LA3, but normal in LA2 and LAS [8].
  • Discrimination was achieved by LAS MS-MS analysis into the ion trap, by monitoring specific fragment ions resulting from the benzylic cleavage of the carbon alkyl chain on both side of the LAS phenyl group [20].
  • Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) increased specific ALP activity and type-I procollagen peptide secretion in both HAS and LAS [18].
  • Two soils with organic matter contents of 3.16% and 7.28% and 11 surfactants, three of them anionic (SDS, LAS, and SDOSS) and 8 of them nonionic (Tween 80, Tween 20, Triton X-100, Triton X-114, Brij 35, Brij 30, Tergitol NP-10, and Tergitol 15S12), at concentrations 1.5 and 10 times the critical micellar concentration (cmc) were used [21].
  • To a large degree, the lower sensitivity observed in 15 and 25 DOA HAS and LAS rats was associated with an increase in the development of acute ethanol tolerance relative to older rats [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of LIAS

  • Three signal-averaged ECG variables were measured: total filtered QRS duration (fQRS), root-mean-square voltage in the terminal 40 ms of the QRS complex (V40) and the terminal low amplitude duration less than 40 microV (LAS) [23].
  • Growth with a single isomer of LAS [3-(4-sulfophenyl)dodecane] was concomitant with excretion of 4-(4-sulfophenyl)hexanoate, which was identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry [24].
  • Adoptive transfer experiments demonstrated an ability of immune splenocytes from CBA mice intraperitoneally infected with the MOP/LAS reassortants to protect recipient mice against lethal disease after ic inoculation with LAS virus [16].
  • A recently developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the determination of linear alkyl benzenesulfonates (LAS) and long chain sulfophenyl carboxylates (SPCs) has been evaluated for its application in wastewater control analysis [25].
  • Systemic lymphadenopathy (LAS) in intravenous drug abusers. Histology, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy: pathogenic correlations [26].


  1. Risk stratification after myocardial infarction using signal-averaged electrocardiographic criteria adjusted for sex, age, and myocardial infarction location. Savard, P., Rouleau, J.L., Ferguson, J., Poitras, N., Morel, P., Davies, R.F., Stewart, D.J., Talajic, M., Gardner, M., Dupuis, R., Lauzon, C., Sussex, B., Potvin, L., Warnica, W. Circulation (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Expression of HIV in lymph node cells of LAS patients. Immunohistology, in situ hybridization, and identification of target cells. Baroni, C.D., Pezzella, F., Pezzella, M., Macchi, B., Vitolo, D., Uccini, S., Ruco, L.P. Am. J. Pathol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  3. Late potentials in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. Prevalence, diagnostic and prognostic values. Leclercq, J.F., Coumel, P. Eur. Heart J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Lack of correlation between human herpesvirus-6 infection and the course of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Spira, T.J., Bozeman, L.H., Sanderlin, K.C., Warfield, D.T., Feorino, P.M., Holman, R.C., Kaplan, J.E., Fishbein, D.B., Lopez, C. J. Infect. Dis. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Mutational Analysis of Peptidoglycan Amidase MepA. Firczuk, M.L., Bochtler, M. Biochemistry (2007) [Pubmed]
  6. Radical mechanisms of enzymatic catalysis. Frey, P.A. Annu. Rev. Biochem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. In vitro effect of foscarnet on expansion of T-cells from people with LAS and AIDS. Beldekas, J.C., Levy, E.M., Black, P., Von Krogh, G., Sandstrom, E. Lancet (1985) [Pubmed]
  8. Altered expression and function of the insulin receptor in a family with lipoatrophic diabetes. Kriauciunas, K.M., Kahn, C.R., Muller-Wieland, D., Reddy, S.S., Taub, R. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Beneficial effects of lysine acetylsalicylate, a soluble salt of aspirin, on motor performance in a transgenic model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Barnéoud, P., Curet, O. Exp. Neurol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Combined oral lysine acetylsalicylate and metoclopramide in the acute treatment of migraine: a multicentre double-blind placebo-controlled study. Chabriat, H., Joire, J.E., Danchot, J., Grippon, P., Bousser, M.G. Cephalalgia : an international journal of headache. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Laparoscopic CO2 laser vaporization of endometriosis compared with traditional treatments. Adamson, G.D., Lu, J., Subak, L.L. Fertil. Steril. (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Serum thymidine kinase (TK) evaluation in HIV infection. Sabbatani, S., Fini, A., Raise, E., Gritti, F.M. Int. J. Biol. Markers (1989) [Pubmed]
  13. alpha-L-fucosidase variant and lipid-associated sialic acid in hereditary ovarian cancer. Wells, I.C., Lynch, H.T., Lynch, J.F. Cancer Genet. Cytogenet. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Incidence and clinicopathological heterogeneity of HIV-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Rossi, G., Cadeo, G., Stellini, R., Zorzi, F., Favret, M., Sueri, L., Carosi, G., Mariano, M., Marinone, G. Haematologica (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Influence of posture on left ventricular long- and short-axis shortening. Sundblad, P., Wranne, B. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Generation of reassortants between African arenaviruses. Lukashevich, I.S. Virology (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Identification of bladder cancer antigens recognized by IgG antibodies of a patient with metastatic bladder cancer. Ito, K., Fujita, T., Akada, M., Kiniwa, Y., Tsukamoto, M., Yamamoto, A., Matsuzaki, Y., Matsushita, M., Asano, T., Nakashima, J., Tachibana, M., Hayakawa, M., Ikeda, H., Murai, M., Kawakami, Y. Int. J. Cancer (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Effects of androgens on subpopulations of the human osteosarcoma cell line SaOS2. Kasperk, C.H., Faehling, K., Börcsök, I., Ziegler, R. Calcif. Tissue Int. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Magnetic resonance imaging in human lymphedema: comparison with lymphangioscintigraphy. Case, T.C., Witte, C.L., Witte, M.H., Unger, E.C., Williams, W.H. Magnetic resonance imaging. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Differentiation and quantification of linear alkyl benzenesulfonate isomers by liquid chromatography-ion-trap mass spectrometry. Lunar, L., Rubio, S., Pérez-Bendito, D. Journal of chromatography. A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Evaluation of component characteristics of soil-surfactant-herbicide system that affect enhanced desorption of linuron and atrazine preadsorbed by soils. Sánchez-Camazano, M., Rodríguez-Cruz, S., Sánchez-Martín, M.J. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Developmental alterations of ethanol sensitivity in selectively bred high and low alcohol sensitive rats. Draski, L.J., Bice, P.J., Deitrich, R.A. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Time course of moricizine's effect on signal-averaged and 12 lead electrocardiograms: insights into mechanism of action. Wechsler, M.E., Steinberg, J.S., Giardina, E.G. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. An alpha-proteobacterium converts linear alkylbenzenesulfonate surfactants into sulfophenylcarboxylates and linear alkyldiphenyletherdisulfonate surfactants into sulfodiphenylethercarboxylates. Schleheck, D., Dong, W., Denger, K., Heinzle, E., Cook, A.M. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Evaluation of a newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for determination of linear alkyl benzenesulfonates in wastewater treatment plants. Farré, M., Ramón, J., Galve, R., Marco, M.P., Barceló, D. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Systemic lymphadenopathy (LAS) in intravenous drug abusers. Histology, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy: pathogenic correlations. Baroni, C.D., Pezzella, F., Stoppacciaro, A., Mirolo, M., Pescarmona, E., Vitolo, D., Cassano, A.M., Barsotti, P., Nicoletti, L., Ruco, L.P. Histopathology (1985) [Pubmed]
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