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Gene Review

TWIST2  -  twist family bHLH transcription factor 2

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: BHLHA39, Class A basic helix-loop-helix protein 39, DERMO1, Dermis-expressed protein 1, Dermo-1, ...
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Disease relevance of TWIST2


High impact information on TWIST2


Chemical compound and disease context of TWIST2


Biological context of TWIST2


Anatomical context of TWIST2

  • No mutations in the TWIST2 gene were found in DNA extracted from peripheral leukocytes in the two children who were investigated [11].
  • We speculate that expression of Twist and Dermo-1 maintains cells in an osteoprogenitor or preosteoblast-like state, respectively, and prevents premature or ectopic osteoblast differentiation [10].
  • Dermo-1: a novel twist-related bHLH protein expressed in the developing dermis [12].
  • Within its bHLH region, Dermo-1 shares extensive homology with members of the twist family of bHLH proteins, which are expressed in embryonic mesoderm [12].
  • Synovial intimal, serosal, alveolar, salivary gland and placental macrophages, Kupffer cells, and macrophages in mechanically stressed dermis expressed high levels of Fc gamma RIIIa [13].

Associations of TWIST2 with chemical compounds

  • Southern blot (SB), bisulfite sequencing, and combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA), and quantitative SB-COBRA was performed to study methylation of the TWIST2 promoter [1].
  • An overall increase of histone acetylation induced by trichostatin A treatment reduced Dermo-1 transcriptional repression activity, suggesting that histone deacetylation is involved in Dermo-1-mediated transcriptional repression [14].
  • Enzymatic synthesis of unsaturated fatty acid glucoside esters for dermo-cosmetic applications [15].
  • The rarity of the allergen responsible for this dermo-respiratory picture stresses the need to include, on occasions, not only insects but also worms in the battery of the usual neumoallergens [16].
  • The widely used mastopexies and reduction mammaplasties will be analyzed, with demonstration of transposition of NAC using different kind of dermo-glandular flaps, e.g.: Skoog-, Pitanguy-, McKissock-, Strömbeck-, Robbins-, Regnault- and other's method [17].

Regulatory relationships of TWIST2


Other interactions of TWIST2


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TWIST2

  • Immunolabelling and in situ hybridization experiments showed that this enzyme is expressed in the different layers of epidermis with an accumulation at the dermo-epidermis junction [20].
  • Scattered dendritic cells in the papillary and upper reticular dermis expressed heat shock protein 70 and procollagen 1 after treatment with either light device [21].
  • During a campaign for the early diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma, 311 patients with non-melanocytic lesions, common naevi, dysplastic naevi and melanomas underwent clinical diagnosis using ELM, computerized evaluation with DB-Dermo MIPS and skin biopsy [22].
  • METHODS: Thirty-eight patients who had undergone central ray amputation and closure with the plantar dermo-fat pad flap between 1996 and 2003 were incorporated into the study [23].
  • Reductive mammaplasty with superior-based pedicled dermo-glandular flap: our experience [24].


  1. TWIST2 demonstrates differential methylation in immunoglobulin variable heavy chain mutated and unmutated chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Raval, A., Lucas, D.M., Matkovic, J.J., Bennett, K.L., Liyanarachchi, S., Young, D.C., Rassenti, L., Kipps, T.J., Grever, M.R., Byrd, J.C., Plass, C. J. Clin. Oncol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. The surgical approach to Peyronie's disease. Taranger, L.A., Robson, C.J., Barkin, M. J. Urol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  3. Neuronal elements in snail tentacles as revealed by horseradish peroxidase backfilling. Chase, R., Kamil, R. J. Neurobiol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  4. New insights into the immunoultrastructural organization of cutaneous basement membrane zone molecules. Shimizu, H. Exp. Dermatol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. An anatomo-clinical study of delayed skin allergic reactions to nickel following intradermal injections of lidocaïne with a Dermo-jet. Lachapelle, J.M., Tennstedt, D. Contact Derm. (1982) [Pubmed]
  6. Twist is a potential oncogene that inhibits apoptosis. Maestro, R., Dei Tos, A.P., Hamamori, Y., Krasnokutsky, S., Sartorelli, V., Kedes, L., Doglioni, C., Beach, D.H., Hannon, G.J. Genes Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Characterization of 18 new mutations in COL7A1 in recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa provides evidence for distinct molecular mechanisms underlying defective anchoring fibril formation. Hovnanian, A., Rochat, A., Bodemer, C., Petit, E., Rivers, C.A., Prost, C., Fraitag, S., Christiano, A.M., Uitto, J., Lathrop, M., Barrandon, Y., de Prost, Y. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Peyronie's disease: results with dermo-jet injection of dexamethasone. Winter, C.C., Khanna, R. J. Urol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  9. Dried fruit hypersensitivity and its correlation with pollen allergy. Amat Par, P., Sanosa Valls, J., Lluch Pérez, M., Malet Casajuana, A., García Calderón, P.A. Allergologia et immunopathologia. (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Human Dermo-1 has attributes similar to twist in early bone development. Lee, M.S., Lowe, G., Flanagan, S., Kuchler, K., Glackin, C.A. Bone (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Focal preauricular dermal dysplasia: distinctive congenital lesions with a bilateral and symmetric distribution. Prescott, T., Devriendt, K., Hamel, B., Pasch, M.C., Peeters, H., Vander Poorten, V., Tallerås, O. European journal of medical genetics. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Dermo-1: a novel twist-related bHLH protein expressed in the developing dermis. Li, L., Cserjesi, P., Olson, E.N. Dev. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Differential distribution of Fc gamma RIIIa in normal human tissues and co-localization with DAF and fibrillin-1: implications for immunological microenvironments. Bhatia, A., Blades, S., Cambridge, G., Edwards, J.C. Immunology (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Dermo-1, a multifunctional basic helix-loop-helix protein, represses MyoD transactivation via the HLH domain, MEF2 interaction, and chromatin deacetylation. Gong, X.Q., Li, L. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Enzymatic synthesis of unsaturated fatty acid glucoside esters for dermo-cosmetic applications. Bousquet, M.P., Willemot, R.M., Monsan, P., Boures, E. Biotechnol. Bioeng. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Angioedema, rhinitis and asthma provoked by fishing bait (Eisenia foetida). Valero Santiago, A., Huguet Casals, J., Sanosa Valls, J., Malet Casajuana, A., García Calderón, P.A. Allergologia et immunopathologia. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. The blood supporting of nipple-areolar (NAC) complex performing for mammaplasties. Kelemen, O., Vizsy, L., Bátorfi, J. Acta chirurgica Hungarica. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Expression of 27 KD, 65 KD and 72/73 KD heat shock protein in atopic dermatitis: comparison with those in normal skin and contact dermatitis. Ghoreishi, M., Yokozeki, H., Hua, W.M., Nishioka, K. J. Dermatol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. MY7 monoclonal antibody for diagnosis of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Dreno, B., Bureau, B., Stalder, J.F., Litoux, P. Archives of dermatology. (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. Human epidermis is a novel site of phospholipase B expression. Maury, E., Prévost, M.C., Nauze, M., Redoulès, D., Tarroux, R., Charvéron, M., Salles, J.P., Perret, B., Chap, H., Gassama-Diagne, A. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Effects of intense pulsed light and the 1,064 nm Nd:YAG laser on sun-damaged human skin: histologic and immunohistochemical analysis. Prieto, V.G., Diwan, A.H., Shea, C.R., Zhang, P., Sadick, N.S. Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Digital epiluminescence microscopy: usefulness in the differential diagnosis of cutaneous pigmentary lesions. A statistical comparison between visual and computer inspection. Bauer, P., Cristofolini, P., Boi, S., Burroni, M., Dell'Eva, G., Micciolo, R., Cristofolini, M. Melanoma Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Promoting primary healing after ray amputations in the diabetic foot: the plantar dermo-fat pad flap. Altindas, M., Atindas, M., Cinar, C. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Reductive mammaplasty with superior-based pedicled dermo-glandular flap: our experience. Valeriani, M., Mezzana, P., Madonna, T.F. Acta chirurgiae plasticae. (2001) [Pubmed]
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