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Gene Review

AMACR  -  alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: 2-methylacyl-CoA racemase, AMACRD, Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase, CBAS4, RACE, ...
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Disease relevance of AMACR

  • Sequence analysis of AMACR cDNA from the patients identified two different mutations that are likely to cause disease, based on analysis in Escherichia coli [1].
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine the expression and clinical utility of alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase (AMACR), a gene identified as being overexpressed in prostate cancer by global profiling strategies [2].
  • Both untreated metastases (n = 32 patients) and hormone refractory prostate cancers (n = 14 patients) were generally strongly positive for AMACR [3].
  • Examination of colorectal cancer, which is not hormone regulated, demonstrated high levels of AMACR expression in well to moderately differentiated tumors and weak expression in anaplastic colorectal cancers [4].
  • We observed stronger AMACR protein expression in high-grade carcinomas when compared with low-grade ones [5].

High impact information on AMACR


Chemical compound and disease context of AMACR


Biological context of AMACR


Anatomical context of AMACR


Associations of AMACR with chemical compounds

  • Immunohistochemistry was carried out with antibodies specific for alpha-methyl-coenzyme A racemase (AMACR) and glutathione S-transferase alpha (clear-cell RCC marker) [18].
  • Conversely, pristanic acid and, to a much lesser extent, phytanic acid markedly increased AMACR protein levels selectively in the LNCaP cell line, but not the NPrEC cell line [19].
  • The usefulness of our approach based on virtual microscopy can be evaluated on the website , which also serves as an educational tool for self-learning the correlation between hematoxylin and eosin stained tissue morphology, and AMACR/p63 IHC in prostate biopsies [20].
  • Immunohistochemical staining was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections, with a primary prediluted rabbit monoclonal anti-AMACR antibody [21].
  • Neither the biologically potent androgen 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone nor 17beta-estradiol had any apparent effect on AMACR expression at the protein or transcriptional levels in either cell line [19].

Other interactions of AMACR

  • AMACR IIA contains an alternative fifth exon that has extensive homology to the human fumarate hydratase (FH) and encodes a 288-amino acid protein (Mw 32 kDa, pI 9.6) [14].
  • Data from Western blotting and luciferase-based reporter assays suggest that the function and expression of AMACR are independent of androgen receptor-mediated signaling [7].
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: The expression levels of AMACR mRNA were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction [22].
  • Most of the adenomas (82%, 31/38) stained strongly for AMACR in a fashion similar to that of PRCC [18].
  • Foci of ASAP found in the absence of cancer were assessed with additional sectioning, high-molecular weight keratin (CK903), and alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase (AMACR) immunohistochemistry [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of AMACR


  1. Mutations in the gene encoding peroxisomal alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase cause adult-onset sensory motor neuropathy. Ferdinandusse, S., Denis, S., Clayton, P.T., Graham, A., Rees, J.E., Allen, J.T., McLean, B.N., Brown, A.Y., Vreken, P., Waterham, H.R., Wanders, R.J. Nat. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. alpha-Methylacyl coenzyme A racemase as a tissue biomarker for prostate cancer. Rubin, M.A., Zhou, M., Dhanasekaran, S.M., Varambally, S., Barrette, T.R., Sanda, M.G., Pienta, K.J., Ghosh, D., Chinnaiyan, A.M. JAMA (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase: a new molecular marker for prostate cancer. Luo, J., Zha, S., Gage, W.R., Dunn, T.A., Hicks, J.L., Bennett, C.J., Ewing, C.M., Platz, E.A., Ferdinandusse, S., Wanders, R.J., Trent, J.M., Isaacs, W.B., De Marzo, A.M. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. alpha-Methylacyl-CoA racemase: expression levels of this novel cancer biomarker depend on tumor differentiation. Kuefer, R., Varambally, S., Zhou, M., Lucas, P.C., Loeffler, M., Wolter, H., Mattfeldt, T., Hautmann, R.E., Gschwend, J.E., Barrette, T.R., Dunn, R.L., Chinnaiyan, A.M., Rubin, M.A. Am. J. Pathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase protein expression is associated with the degree of differentiation in breast cancer using quantitative image analysis. Witkiewicz, A.K., Varambally, S., Shen, R., Mehra, R., Sabel, M.S., Ghosh, D., Chinnaiyan, A.M., Rubin, M.A., Kleer, C.G. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Expression profiling identifies a novel alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase exon with fumarate hydratase homology. Shen-Ong, G.L., Feng, Y., Troyer, D.A. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase as an androgen-independent growth modifier in prostate cancer. Zha, S., Ferdinandusse, S., Denis, S., Wanders, R.J., Ewing, C.M., Luo, J., De Marzo, A.M., Isaacs, W.B. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. How often does alpha-methylacyl-CoA-racemase contribute to resolving an atypical diagnosis on prostate needle biopsy beyond that provided by basal cell markers? Zhou, M., Aydin, H., Kanane, H., Epstein, J.I. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Immunohistochemical analysis of mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma and papillary renal cell carcinoma of the kidney: significant immunophenotypic overlap warrants diagnostic caution. Paner, G.P., Srigley, J.R., Radhakrishnan, A., Cohen, C., Skinnider, B.F., Tickoo, S.K., Young, A.N., Amin, M.B. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. AMACR immunostaining is useful in detecting dysplastic epithelium in Barrett's esophagus, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn's disease. Dorer, R., Odze, R.D. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Immunohistochemistry in diagnostic surgical pathology of the prostate. Hameed, O., Humphrey, P.A. Seminars in diagnostic pathology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Alpha-Methylacyl-CoA racemase: a novel tumor marker over-expressed in several human cancers and their precursor lesions. Zhou, M., Chinnaiyan, A.M., Kleer, C.G., Lucas, P.C., Rubin, M.A. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Discovery and clinical application of a novel prostate cancer marker: alpha-methylacyl CoA racemase (P504S). Jiang, Z., Woda, B.A., Wu, C.L., Yang, X.J. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Alternative spliced variants of the alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase gene and their expression in prostate cancer. Mubiru, J.N., Shen-Ong, G.L., Valente, A.J., Troyer, D.A. Gene (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Sequence variants of alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase are associated with prostate cancer risk. Zheng, S.L., Chang, B.L., Faith, D.A., Johnson, J.R., Isaacs, S.D., Hawkins, G.A., Turner, A., Wiley, K.E., Bleecker, E.R., Walsh, P.C., Meyers, D.A., Isaacs, W.B., Xu, J. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Expression of alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase in papillary renal cell carcinoma. Tretiakova, M.S., Sahoo, S., Takahashi, M., Turkyilmaz, M., Vogelzang, N.J., Lin, F., Krausz, T., Teh, B.T., Yang, X.J. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Expression of alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (P504s) in various malignant neoplasms and normal tissues: astudy of 761 cases. Jiang, Z., Fanger, G.R., Woda, B.A., Banner, B.F., Algate, P., Dresser, K., Xu, J., Chu, P.G. Hum. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Renal papillary adenoma-a putative precursor of papillary renal cell carcinoma. Wang, K.L., Weinrach, D.M., Luan, C., Han, M., Lin, F., Teh, B.T., Yang, X.J. Hum. Pathol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  19. Branched fatty acids in dairy and beef products markedly enhance alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase expression in prostate cancer cells in vitro. Mobley, J.A., Leav, I., Zielie, P., Wotkowitz, C., Evans, J., Lam, Y.W., L'Esperance, B.S., Jiang, Z., Ho, S.M. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Virtual microscopy in prostate histopathology: simultaneous viewing of biopsies stained sequentially with hematoxylin and eosin, and alpha-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase/p63 immunohistochemistry. Helin, H.O., Lundin, M.E., Laakso, M., Lundin, J., Helin, H.J., Isola, J. J. Urol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Alpha-methyl CoA racemase expression in renal cell carcinomas. Molinié, V., Balaton, A., Rotman, S., Mansouri, D., De Pinieux, I., Homsi, T., Guillou, L. Hum. Pathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase: a multi-institutional study of a new prostate cancer marker. Jiang, Z., Wu, C.L., Woda, B.A., Iczkowski, K.A., Chu, P.G., Tretiakova, M.S., Young, R.H., Weiss, L.M., Blute, R.D., Brendler, C.B., Krausz, T., Xu, J.C., Rock, K.L., Amin, M.B., Yang, X.J. Histopathology (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Atypical small acinar proliferation: biopsy artefact or distinct pathological entity? Flury, S.C., Galgano, M.T., Mills, S.E., Smolkin, M.E., Theodorescu, D. BJU Int. (2007) [Pubmed]
  24. Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase as a marker in the differential diagnosis of metanephric adenoma. Olgac, S., Hutchinson, B., Tickoo, S.K., Reuter, V.E. Mod. Pathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Decreased alpha-methylacyl CoA racemase expression in localized prostate cancer is associated with an increased rate of biochemical recurrence and cancer-specific death. Rubin, M.A., Bismar, T.A., Andrén, O., Mucci, L., Kim, R., Shen, R., Ghosh, D., Wei, J.T., Chinnaiyan, A.M., Adami, H.O., Kantoff, P.W., Johansson, J.E. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (2005) [Pubmed]
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