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Gene Review

SST  -  somatostatin

Sus scrofa

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Disease relevance of SST

  • Infusion of somatostatin (0.2 micrograms/kg X min) initially decreased plasma glucose, Ra, and Rd, which was followed by an increase in plasma glucose and Ra; however, on infusion of somatostatin plus Na-DL-beta-OHB, hypoglycemia and the reduced Ra were maintained [1].
  • Angiopeptin is an octapeptide analogue of somatostatin that has been shown to decrease the experimental intimal hyperplasia associated with vascular injury in rats and rabbits [2].
  • VIP-positive fibers exhibited a very dense fiber network, almost exclusively related to the SOM cell-dominated part of the ganglion [3].
  • Intraoperative graft blood flow was significantly decreased by SMS, but incidence of graft thrombosis was unchanged [4].
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that somatostatin has the capacity to suppress the release of histamine and prevents potentiation of LTB4 release by indomethacin by the guinea pig bladder in response to pro-inflammatory peptides, indicating that somatostatin may be useful in preventing or treating some forms of cystitis [5].

Psychiatry related information on SST


High impact information on SST


Chemical compound and disease context of SST

  • Effect of total or partial uterus extirpation on sympathetic uterus-projecting neurons in porcine inferior mesenteric ganglion. B. Changes in expression of neuropeptide Y, galanin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating peptide, somatostatin and substance P [10].
  • This experimental study was performed to investigate the role of ischemia-reperfusion injury on retinal nitric oxide activity and to determine whether octreotide, the synthetic analogue of natural somatostatin, modifies the nitric oxide activity during retinal ischemia-reperfusion in a quinea pig model [11].
  • In conclusion, activation of alpha 2-adrenoceptors and somatostatin receptors selectively blocks excitatory responses induced by CADO, most likely by inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and via pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins [12].
  • Pertussis toxin (200 ng/ml for 3 h) reversed the inhibitory effects of SS and baclofen on CCK-stimulated contraction and release [13].
  • Pretreatment with pertussis toxin (inactivates inhibitory guanine nucleotide binding proteins) reversed the inhibitory effect of somatostatin on the release of [3H]ACh evoked by CCK-8 [14].

Biological context of SST


Anatomical context of SST

  • Somatostatin-like immunoreactivity (SST-LI) of rat thymus, eluting in part as authentic SST, was unaffected both by capsaicin or 6-OHDA pretreatment [20].
  • Both results demonstrate that the site of AV conduction block induced by SST is at the AV node [15].
  • Gastrin cells appeared in the stomach at the 4-wk stage; somatostatin cells appeared about 1 wk later [16].
  • Still later (15-17-wk stage), dense accumulations of endocrine cells (Segi's cap) were occasionally observed on the top of villi in the upper small intestine; these accumulations consisted mainly of somatostatin, cholecystokinin, and gastric inhibitory peptide cells [16].
  • This octacosapeptide is most likely a precursor (pro-hormone) of somatostatin in the hypothalamus [21].

Associations of SST with chemical compounds


Co-localisations of SST


Regulatory relationships of SST


Other interactions of SST

  • In the present study, developmental changes in gene expression of the Ob-Rl, preproorexin, proopiomelanocortin (POMC), corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), somatostatin, and GnRH in the hypothalamus was studied [33].
  • In the adult pig, GAD65 was localized exclusively in most of the beta cells, whereas GAD67, in addition to being present in a majority of the beta cells, was also seen in a proportion of glucagon and somatostatin labelled cells [34].
  • In addition, to test for the existence of functional differences, cultures of separated HD and LD subpopulations were treated for 4 h with or without 10 microM GRF-(1-29) and/or 100 microM somatostatin (SRIF), and porcine GH release and intracellular content were evaluated using a homologous enzyme immunoassay [35].
  • Somatostatin inhibition and reversal of parathyroid hormone-, calcium-, and acetylcholine-induced gastrin release in the pig [36].
  • This finding could be related to the in vivo regulation by cimetidine of endocrine (somatostatin) and exocrine (pepsin) secretions by the stomach [37].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SST


  1. Effect of ketone bodies on glucose production and utilization in the miniature pig. Müller, M.J., Paschen, U., Seitz, H.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Angiopeptin inhibits intimal hyperplasia after angioplasty in porcine coronary arteries. Santoian, E.D., Schneider, J.E., Gravanis, M.B., Foegh, M., Tarazona, N., Cipolla, G.D., King, S.B. Circulation (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Topography of NPY-, somatostatin-, and VIP-immunoreactive, neuronal subpopulations in the guinea pig celiac-superior mesenteric ganglion and their projection to the pylorus. Lindh, B., Hökfelt, T., Elfvin, L.G., Terenius, L., Fahrenkrug, J., Elde, R., Goldstein, M. J. Neurosci. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. The effect of somatostatin 201-995 on the early course of porcine pancreaticoduodenal allotransplantation. Nicholson, C.P., Barr, D., Oeltjen, M.R., Munn, S.R., DiMagno, E.P., Carpenter, H.A., Sarr, M.G., Perkins, J.D. Transplantation (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Effect of octreotide, a somatostatin analogue, on release of inflammatory mediators from isolated guinea pig bladder. Bjorling, D.E., Saban, M.R., Saban, R. J. Urol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion is influenced by perfusate glucose concentration and by a feedback mechanism involving somatostatin in isolated perfused porcine ileum. Hansen, L., Hartmann, B., Mineo, H., Holst, J.J. Regul. Pept. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Tachykinins mediate vagal inhibition of gastrin secretion in pigs. Schmidt, P., Poulsen, S.S., Hilsted, L., Rasmussen, T.N., Holst, J.J. Gastroenterology (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Migration of the myoelectric complex after interruption of the myenteric plexus: intestinal transection and regeneration of enteric nerves in the guinea pig. Galligan, J.J., Furness, J.B., Costa, M. Gastroenterology (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Origins of peptide and norepinephrine nerves in the mucosa of the guinea pig small intestine. Keast, J.R., Furness, J.B., Costa, M. Gastroenterology (1984) [Pubmed]
  10. Effect of total or partial uterus extirpation on sympathetic uterus-projecting neurons in porcine inferior mesenteric ganglion. B. Changes in expression of neuropeptide Y, galanin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating peptide, somatostatin and substance P. Wasowicz, K. Polish journal of veterinary sciences. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Nitric oxide and octreotide in retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Celiker, U., Ilhan, N. Documenta ophthalmologica. Advances in ophthalmology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Interactions between inhibitory and excitatory modulatory signals in single submucosal neurons. Barajas-López, C. Am. J. Physiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. GABA mediation of the dual effects of somatostatin on guinea pig ileal myenteric cholinergic transmission. Roberts, D.J., Hasler, W.L., Owyang, C. Am. J. Physiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Differential action of somatostatin on peptide-induced release of acetylcholine. Kowal, V., Wiley, J.W., Owyang, C. Am. J. Physiol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. Electrophysiological effects of somatostatin at the supraventricular level of isolated guinea pig hearts. Barros, I.C., Masuda, M.O., Aprigliano, O.Q. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Ontogeny of endocrine cells in porcine gut and pancreas. An immunocytochemical study. Alumets, J., Håkanson, R., Sundler, F. Gastroenterology (1983) [Pubmed]
  17. Effects of motilin, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide on the migrating myoelectric complex in pig and dog. Bueno, L., Fioramonti, J., Rayner, V., Ruckebusch, Y. Gastroenterology (1982) [Pubmed]
  18. Somatostatin inhibits the release of acetylcholine induced electrically in the myenteric plexus. Guillemin, R. Endocrinology (1976) [Pubmed]
  19. Somatostatin is an agonist and noncompetitive antagonist of gastrin in oxyntic cell function. Shapiro, B., Pienta, K., Heldsinger, A., Vinik, A.I. Endocrinology (1981) [Pubmed]
  20. Substance P-like immunoreactivity in capsaicin-sensitive structures of the rat thymus. Geppetti, P., Maggi, C.A., Zecchi-Orlandini, S., Santicioli, P., Meli, A., Frilli, S., Spillantini, M.G., Amenta, F. Regul. Pept. (1987) [Pubmed]
  21. Isolation and structure of pro-somatostatin: a putative somatostatin precursor from pig hypothalamus. Schally, A.V., Huang, W.Y., Chang, R.C., Arimura, A., Redding, T.W., Millar, R.P., Hunkapiller, M.W., Hood, L.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1980) [Pubmed]
  22. Ultrastructural localization of four different neuropeptides within separate populations of p-type nerves in the guinea pig colon. Probert, L., De Mey, J., Polak, J.M. Gastroenterology (1983) [Pubmed]
  23. Continuous subcutaneous angiopeptin treatment significantly reduces neointimal hyperplasia in a porcine coronary in-stent restenosis model. Hong, M.K., Kent, K.M., Mehran, R., Mintz, G.S., Tio, F.O., Foegh, M., Wong, S.C., Cathapermal, S.S., Leon, M.B. Circulation (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Purification of a membrane-bound metalloendopeptidase from porcine kidney that degrades peptide hormones. Mumford, R.A., Pierzchala, P.A., Strauss, A.W., Zimmerman, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  25. Potassium conductance increased by noradrenaline, opioids, somatostatin, and G-proteins: whole-cell recording from guinea pig submucous neurons. Tatsumi, H., Costa, M., Schimerlik, M., North, R.A. J. Neurosci. (1990) [Pubmed]
  26. Immediate-early gene expression in the inferior mesenteric ganglion and colonic myenteric plexus of the guinea pig. Sharkey, K.A., Parr, E.J., Keenan, C.M. J. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Localization of pancreastatin immunoreactivity in porcine endocrine cells. Ravazzola, M., Efendic, S., Ostenson, C.G., Tatemoto, K., Hutton, J.C., Orci, L. Endocrinology (1988) [Pubmed]
  28. Evidence for transformation of glucagon-like immunoreactivity of gut into pancreatic glucagon in vivo. Korányi, L., Péterfy, F., Szabó, J., Török, A., Guóth, M., Tamás, G. Diabetes (1981) [Pubmed]
  29. Secretin and somatostatin as modulators of electrolyte transport in guinea pig gallbladder epithelium. Sprakties, G., Macherey, H.J., Petersen, K.U. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1993) [Pubmed]
  30. The effects of duodenal peptides on glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion from the ileum. A duodeno--ileal loop? Hansen, L., Holst, J.J. Regul. Pept. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Differential contribution of nitric oxide and cGMP to the stimulatory effects of growth hormone-releasing hormone and low-concentration somatostatin on growth hormone release from somatotrophs. Luque, R.M., Rodríguez-Pacheco, F., Tena-Sempere, M., Gracia-Navarro, F., Malagón, M.M., Castaño, J.P. J. Neuroendocrinol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Galanin inhibits somatostatin release by the rat islet cell tumor in culture, Rin-m. Amiranoff, B., Lorinet, A.M., Laburthe, M. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  33. Developmental changes in the long form leptin receptor and related neuropeptide gene expression in the pig brain. Lin, J., Richard Barb, C., Kraeling, R.R., Rampacek, G.B. Biol. Reprod. (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. Glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 and 67 isoforms in fetal, neonatal and adult porcine islets: predominant beta cell co-localization by light and confocal microscopy. Reddy, S., Wu, D., Poole, C.A. J. Autoimmun. (1996) [Pubmed]
  35. Somatostatin increases growth hormone (GH) secretion in a subpopulation of porcine somatotropes: evidence for functional and morphological heterogeneity among porcine GH-producing cells. Castaño, J.P., Torronteras, R., Ramirez, J.L., Gribouval, A., Sanchez-Hormigo, A., Ruiz-Navarro, A., Gracia-Navarro, F. Endocrinology (1996) [Pubmed]
  36. Somatostatin inhibition and reversal of parathyroid hormone-, calcium-, and acetylcholine-induced gastrin release in the pig. Bolman, R.M., Cooper, C.W., Wells, S.A. Endocrinology (1978) [Pubmed]
  37. Regulation by vasoactive intestinal peptide, histamine, somatostatin-14 and -28 of cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels in gastric glands isolated from the guinea pig fundus or antrum. Gespach, C., Hui Bon Hoa, D., Rosselin, G. Endocrinology (1983) [Pubmed]
  38. Intrathecal somatostatin in the guinea pig: effects on spinal cord blood flow, histopathology and motor function. Mollenholt, P., Post, C., Paulsson, I., Rawal, N. Pain (1992) [Pubmed]
  39. Peptide immunoreactive nerves and cells of the guinea pig gall bladder and biliary pathways. Cai, W., Gu, J., Huang, W., McGregor, G.P., Ghatei, M.A., Bloom, S.R., Polak, J.M. Gut (1983) [Pubmed]
  40. Differentiation of fetal pig endocrine cells after allografting into the thymus gland. Tuch, B.E., Wright, D.C., Martin, T.E., Keogh, G.W., Deol, H.S., Simpson, A.M., Roach, W., Pinto, A.N. Transplantation (1999) [Pubmed]
  41. Homologous and heterologous regulation of pituitary receptors for ghrelin and growth hormone-releasing hormone. Luque, R.M., Kineman, R.D., Park, S., Peng, X.D., Gracia-Navarro, F., Castaño, J.P., Malagon, M.M. Endocrinology (2004) [Pubmed]
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