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Gene Review

Ppy  -  pancreatic polypeptide

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: PP, Pancreatic polypeptide, Pancreatic prohormone
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Disease relevance of Ppy

  • Influence of a transplantable insulinoma on the pancreatic status of insulin and pancreatic polypeptide in the rat [1].
  • Thus, at least 90% of the PP response to hypoglycemia is neurally mediated [2].
  • Changes consisted of pronounced insulin cell hyperplasia, disarrangement of islet architecture, and disappearance (degranulation?) of a new islet cell type, the pancreatic polypeptide cell [3].
  • Pancreatic polypeptide administration increased hepatic Bmax in rats with chronic pancreatitis (to 47.2 +/- 9.8 fmol/mg protein), but had no significant effect in sham-operated rats [4].
  • For this purpose, either PP dissolved in saline (225, 450, or 900 pmol/kg body weight/h) or saline alone was infused at a rate of 2 ml/h for 30 min [5].

Psychiatry related information on Ppy


High impact information on Ppy


Chemical compound and disease context of Ppy

  • In control rats (n = 10), plasma PP increased from a baseline level of 30 +/- 3 pg/ml to 271 +/- 41 pg/ml during hypoglycemia (plasma glucose = 29 +/- 2 mg/dl) (delta PP = +241 +/- 42 pg/ml, P less than 0.0005), demonstrating that in rats, as in other species, insulin-induced hypoglycemia is a potent stimulus for PP release [2].
  • The combination of combined blockade + atropine resulted in a PP response (delta = +26 +/- 7 pg/ml) to hypoglycemia that was similar to that in hexamethonium-treated rats (P less than 0.01 vs. control rats) [2].
  • PP only increased by 31 +/- 10 pg/ml during similar hypoglycemia in 7 hexamethonium-treated rats (P less than 0.01 vs. control animals) [2].
  • The plasma PP response to hypoglycemia was +85 +/- 24 pg/ml in atropine-treated rats (P 0.01 vs. control rats), suggesting that approximately 65% of the PP response is mediated via muscarinic acetylcholine receptors on the islet F cell [2].
  • Effective pancreas denervation was documented by a decreased pancreatic polypeptide (PP) response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia and by decreased levels of norepinephrine and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in pancreatic tissue [11].

Biological context of Ppy


Anatomical context of Ppy

  • Pancreatic polypeptide, a 36-amino acid peptide hormone, is synthesized in pancreatic islets of Langerhans and acts as a regulator of pancreatic and gastrointestinal functions [12].
  • We investigated the pre- and postsynaptic effects of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) on identified pancreas-projecting neurons of the rat dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus in thin brain stem slices [14].
  • PP induced a concentration-dependent inhibition in amplitude of excitatory (n = 22 of 30 neurons) and inhibitory (n = 13 of 17 neurons) postsynaptic currents evoked by electrical stimulation of the adjacent nucleus of the solitary tract, with an estimated EC(50) of 30 nM for both [14].
  • Regardless of the PP-induced effect, the vast majority of responsive neurons had a multipolar somata morphology with dendrites projecting to areas other than the fourth ventricle or the central canal [14].
  • In addition, the main source of PP to the systemic circulation may be the ventral part of the pancreas [15].

Associations of Ppy with chemical compounds


Other interactions of Ppy


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ppy


  1. Influence of a transplantable insulinoma on the pancreatic status of insulin and pancreatic polypeptide in the rat. O'Hare, M.M., Shaw, C., Swanston-Flatt, S.K., Marcelli, M., Buchanan, K.D., Flatt, P.R. Diabetologia (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. Autonomic nervous system mediation of the pancreatic polypeptide response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia in conscious rats. Havel, P.J., Parry, S.J., Curry, D.L., Stern, J.S., Akpan, J.O., Gingerich, R.L. Endocrinology (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Changes in the islets of langerhans in the obese Zucker rat. Larsson, L.I., Boder, G.B., Shaw, W.N. Lab. Invest. (1977) [Pubmed]
  4. Alterations in hepatocyte insulin binding in chronic pancreatitis: effects of pancreatic polypeptide. Seymour, N.E., Volpert, A.R., Lee, E.L., Andersen, D.K., Hernandez, C. Am. J. Surg. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Pancreatic polypeptide and splanchnic blood flow in anesthetized rats. Jansson, L., Efendic, S. Peptides (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Distribution of pancreatic polypeptide receptors in the rat brain. Whitcomb, D.C., Puccio, A.M., Vigna, S.R., Taylor, I.L., Hoffman, G.E. Brain Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Neuropeptide Y distribution in the rat brain. Allen, Y.S., Adrian, T.E., Allen, J.M., Tatemoto, K., Crow, T.J., Bloom, S.R., Polak, J.M. Science (1983) [Pubmed]
  8. Betacellulin and activin A coordinately convert amylase-secreting pancreatic AR42J cells into insulin-secreting cells. Mashima, H., Ohnishi, H., Wakabayashi, K., Mine, T., Miyagawa, J., Hanafusa, T., Seno, M., Yamada, H., Kojima, I. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Multipotential phenotypic expression of genes encoding peptide hormones in rat insulinoma cell lines. Philippe, J., Chick, W.L., Habener, J.F. J. Clin. Invest. (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. Pancreatic polypeptide microinjection into the dorsal motor nucleus inhibits pancreatic secretion in rats. Okumura, T., Pappas, T.N., Taylor, I.L. Gastroenterology (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Preservation of the incretin effect after orthotopic pancreas transplantation in inbred rats. Kissler, H.J., Gepp, H., Schmiedl, A., Schwille, P.O. Metab. Clin. Exp. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Mosaic evolution of prepropancreatic polypeptide. Yamamoto, H., Nata, K., Okamoto, H. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. Mosaic evolution of prepropancreatic polypeptide. II. Structural conservation and divergence in pancreatic polypeptide gene. Yonekura, H., Nata, K., Watanabe, T., Kurashina, Y., Yamamoto, H., Okamoto, H. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Effects of pancreatic polypeptide on pancreas-projecting rat dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus neurons. Browning, K.N., Coleman, F.H., Travagli, R.A. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Pancreatic polypeptide secretion from the isolated perfused ventral and dorsal areas of the rat pancreas. Miyazaki, K., Funakoshi, A. Gastroenterology (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. Induction of cellular DNA synthesis in the pancreas and kidneys of rats by peroxisome proliferators, 9-cis retinoic acid, and 3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine. Ohmura, T., Katyal, S.L., Locker, J., Ledda-Columbano, G.M., Columbano, A., Shinozuka, H. Cancer Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Synthesis and hypertensive activity of neuropeptide Y fragments and analogues with modified N- or C-termini or D-substitutions. Boublik, J.H., Scott, N.A., Brown, M.R., Rivier, J.E. J. Med. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Spinal and peripheral modulation of gastric acid secretion and arterial pressure by neuropeptide Y, peptide YY, and pancreatic polypeptide in rats. Wager-Pagé, S.A., Rosenbaum, G., Veale, W.L., Davison, J.S. Peptides (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. Expression of neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) in rat islets and its role in islet cell type segregation. Cirulli, V., Baetens, D., Rutishauser, U., Halban, P.A., Orci, L., Rouiller, D.G. J. Cell. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. The immunohistochemical localization of nine peptides in the sacral parasympathetic nucleus and the dorsal gray commissure in rat spinal cord. Sasek, C.A., Seybold, V.S., Elde, R.P. Neuroscience (1984) [Pubmed]
  21. Effect of jejunoileal bypass in the rat on the enteroinsular axis. Pederson, R.A., Buchan, A.M., Zahedi-Asl, S., Chan, C.B., Brown, J.C. Regul. Pept. (1982) [Pubmed]
  22. A histological study of intrasplenic transplanted neonatal rat pancreas and of adjacent adipose tissue proliferation. Banks, I.G., Sloan, J.M., Buchanan, K.D. Diabetologia (1982) [Pubmed]
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