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Gene Review

SAG  -  S-antigen; retina and pineal gland (arrestin)

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Disease relevance of SAG


High impact information on SAG


Biological context of SAG


Anatomical context of SAG


Associations of SAG with chemical compounds

  • These data show that although 48-kDa protein has ATPase activity, lack of regulation of this activity by the elements of visual transduction makes it unlikely for this activity to have a role in quenching the light activation of cyclic GMP cascade [14].
  • Examination of native and reconstituted vesicles by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate revealed two protein bands that were substantially enriched in the reconstituted system: one at 48 kDa and a diffuse band centered at 82 kDa [15].
  • Purified bovine retinal S-antigen (50,000 m.w.) was treated with cyanogen bromide, producing seven major and several minor fragments [16].
  • DNA polymerase delta was purified to apparent homogeneity by a four-column procedure including DEAE-Sephacel, phenyl-Sepharose, phosphocellulose, and hydroxylapatite, yielding two polypeptides of 125 and 48 kDa, respectively [17].
  • In this study, we show, by pulse-chase labeling and glycosidase digestion, that LOX-1 is synthesized as a 40-kDa precursor protein with N-linked high mannose carbohydrate chains (pre-LOX-1), which is subsequently further glycosylated and processed into the 48-kDa mature form within 40 min [18].

Enzymatic interactions of SAG

  • Our data suggest that 48-kDa protein binds to phosphorylated R* and thereby quenches its capacity to activate transducin and PDEase [12].

Other interactions of SAG


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SAG


  1. Rapid affinity purification of retinal arrestin (48 kDa protein) via its light-dependent binding to phosphorylated rhodopsin. Wilden, U., Wüst, E., Weyand, I., Kühn, H. FEBS Lett. (1986) [Pubmed]
  2. Ultrastructural pathology of S-antigen uveoretinitis. Forrester, J.V., Borthwick, G.M., McMenamin, P.G. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. Autoimmune uveitis induced by molecular mimicry of peptides from rotavirus, bovine casein and retinal S-antigen. Wildner, G., Diedrichs-Möhring, M. Eur. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Serum antibody responses to bovine retinal S-antigen and rod outer segments in proliferative diabetic retinopathy before and after argon laser photocoagulation. Gregerson, D.S., Abrahams, I.W., Puklin, J.E. Ophthalmology (1982) [Pubmed]
  5. Pinealocyte projections into the mammalian brain revealed with S-antigen antiserum. Korf, H.W., Oksche, A., Ekström, P., Gery, I., Zigler, J.S., Klein, D.C. Science (1986) [Pubmed]
  6. Molecular cloning of a protein kinase whose phosphorylation is regulated by genetic adhesion during Chlamydomonas fertilization. Kurvari, V., Zhang, Y., Luo, Y., Snell, W.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Chromostatin, a 20-amino acid peptide derived from chromogranin A, inhibits chromaffin cell secretion. Galindo, E., Rill, A., Bader, M.F., Aunis, D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Primary and secondary structure of bovine retinal S antigen (48-kDa protein). Shinohara, T., Dietzschold, B., Craft, C.M., Wistow, G., Early, J.J., Donoso, L.A., Horwitz, J., Tao, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  9. A splice variant of arrestin. Molecular cloning and localization in bovine retina. Smith, W.C., Milam, A.H., Dugger, D., Arendt, A., Hargrave, P.A., Palczewski, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Kinetics, binding constant, and activation energy of the 48-kDa protein-rhodopsin complex by extra-metarhodopsin II. Schleicher, A., Kühn, H., Hofmann, K.P. Biochemistry (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Light-induced binding of 48-kDa protein to photoreceptor membranes is highly enhanced by phosphorylation of rhodopsin. Kühn, H., Hall, S.W., Wilden, U. FEBS Lett. (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. Phosphodiesterase activation by photoexcited rhodopsin is quenched when rhodopsin is phosphorylated and binds the intrinsic 48-kDa protein of rod outer segments. Wilden, U., Hall, S.W., Kühn, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. Protein binding to a single termination-associated sequence in the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region. Madsen, C.S., Ghivizzani, S.C., Hauswirth, W.W. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Photoreceptor rod outer segment 48-kDa protein has ATPase activity. Sitaramayya, A., Hakki, S. Vis. Neurosci. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Identification and partial purification of the cardiac sodium-calcium exchange protein. Hale, C.C., Slaughter, R.S., Ahrens, D.C., Reeves, J.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  16. Preparation, isolation, and immunochemical studies of the cyanogen bromide peptides from a retinal photoreceptor cell autoantigen, S-antigen. Gregerson, D.S., Putterman, G.J. J. Immunol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  17. Biochemical and functional comparison of DNA polymerases alpha, delta, and epsilon from calf thymus. Weiser, T., Gassmann, M., Thömmes, P., Ferrari, E., Hafkemeyer, P., Hübscher, U. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Biosynthesis and post-translational processing of lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1). N-linked glycosylation affects cell-surface expression and ligand binding. Kataoka, H., Kume, N., Miyamoto, S., Minami, M., Murase, T., Sawamura, T., Masaki, T., Hashimoto, N., Kita, T. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Ca2+ binding capacity of cytoplasmic proteins from rod photoreceptors is mainly due to arrestin. Huppertz, B., Weyand, I., Bauer, P.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. S-antigen-specific rat T cell lines recognize peptide fragments of S-antigen and mediate experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis and pinealitis. Gregerson, D.S., Obritsch, W.F., Fling, S.P., Cameron, J.D. J. Immunol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  21. Hierarchy of lens proteins requiring protection against heat-induced precipitation by the alpha crystallin chaperone. Velasco, P.T., Lukas, T.J., Murthy, S.N., Duglas-Tabor, Y., Garland, D.L., Lorand, L. Exp. Eye Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Immunocytochemical evidence of molecular photoreceptor markers in cerebellar medulloblastomas. Korf, H.W., Czerwionka, M., Reiner, J., Schachenmayr, W., Schalken, J.J., de Grip, W., Gery, I. Cancer (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. Copurification of selected glycolytic enzymes with retinal S-antigen (arrestin) by hydroxyapatite agarose chromatography of bovine retina. Mirshahi, M., Camoin, L., Nicolas, C., Ghedira, I., Cozette, J., Faure, J.P. Curr. Eye Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Sequence analysis of bovine retinal S-antigen. Relationships with alpha-transducin and G-proteins. Wistow, G.J., Katial, A., Craft, C., Shinohara, T. FEBS Lett. (1986) [Pubmed]
  25. Bovine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein M forms a disulfide-linked heterodimer with the U(L)49.5 protein. Wu, S.X., Zhu, X.P., Letchworth, G.J. J. Virol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Serum antibody levels of uveitis patients to bovine retinal antigens. Gregerson, D.S., Abrahams, I.W., Thirkill, C.E. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1981) [Pubmed]
  27. Purification of retinal S-antigen to homogeneity by the criterion of gel electrophoresis silver staining. Zigler, J.S., Mochizuki, M., Kuwabara, T., Gery, I. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1984) [Pubmed]
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