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Gene Review

CCL2  -  chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2

Bos taurus

Synonyms: MCP-1, MCP-1A, MCP1, MCP1A, SCYA2
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Disease relevance of CCL2


High impact information on CCL2

  • The ability of APCs from the gut of CCL2(-/-) and CCR2(-/-) OVA-fed mice to stimulate an indicator T cell line was evaluated [3].
  • Cells from the spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, and peripheral lymph nodes of CCL2(-/-) and CCR2(-/-) mice fed high doses of OVA showed robust proliferative responses compared with cells from Ag-fed wild-type mice [3].
  • Inhibitors of transcription factor NF-kappaB, N-alpha-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethylketone (TLCK) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), as well as an inhibitor of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, PD 98059, attenuated VEGF-induced expression of MCP-1 mRNA [1].
  • The 3.6-kb 5' flanking region of the rat MCP-1 gene was cloned and sequenced, and two putative kappaB binding sites were identified within the enhancer region [4].
  • The transcription and translation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), a CC chemokine, are increased in proximal tubule epithelial cells (PTC) stimulated with pathophysiologically relevant concentrations of albumin [4].

Biological context of CCL2

  • Six conserved sequence stretches located within 400 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site in MCP-1 genes were detected [5].
  • We undertook to identify homologous sequences 5'-upstream of the transcriptional start site within the genes of rat, mouse, human and bovine MCP-1 [5].
  • The bovine MCP-1 gene consists of three exons separated by two introns [5].
  • A dose-dependent inhibition of lipid peroxidation could be demonstrated for medium and high concentrations of aSFP (0.125 to 4 g/l) [6].
  • Compared with other reducing agents, aSFP showed the highest potency in preventing oxidative stress [6].

Anatomical context of CCL2

  • Bovine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (bovine MCP-1) cDNA has recently been characterized and shown to be highly expressed in bovine seminal vesicles [5].
  • Stimulation of P6 mRNA expression by phytohemagglutinin in bovine peripheral mononuclear leukocytes suggests that P6 is identical to bovine MCP-1 [7].
  • The 13 kDa acidic seminal fluid protein (aSFP) is a major component of bovine semen exerting growth factor-like activity [6].
  • We suggest that in the bull aSFP may play a role in the regulation of sperm metabolism and the protection of sperm membranes from oxidative damage [6].
  • Information regarding the regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in regression of the corpus luteum (CL) is limited [8].

Associations of CCL2 with chemical compounds

  • Interestingly, PGF 2alpha did not alter either CCL2 or EDN1 secretion, regardless of culture conditions (P > 0.05) [9].
  • Inhibition of NFkappaB with pharmacologic agents (N-tosyl-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone and dexamethasone) and an antisense oligonucleotide to the rat p65 subunit of NFkappaB significantly reduced MCP-1 transcription [4].
  • Dual autoradiography in animals co-injected with iodine-125 labeled bovine serum albumin on days 1 and 4 showed specific location of MCP-1 to infiltrating Mphis while annexin V localized to focal zones of apoptosis within granulocytic infiltrates adjacent to abscess cavities [10].
  • To investigate whether interleukin-1 beta(IL-1 beta), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induce expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) mRNA and protein in calf aortic smooth muscle cells(SMCs), calf aortic SMCs were cultured by a substrate-attached explant method [11].

Other interactions of CCL2

  • EC cocultured with concanavalin A-activated PBMC (ActPBMC) increased CCL2 secretion an average of 12-fold higher compared with controls (P < 0.05), but again, EDN1 secretion was unchanged (P > 0.05) [9].
  • Compared to bovine MCP-1 and MCP-2, the protein consists of 84% and 53% identical amino acids, respectively [12].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CCL2


  1. Vascular endothelial growth factor activates nuclear factor-kappaB and induces monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in bovine retinal endothelial cells. Marumo, T., Schini-Kerth, V.B., Busse, R. Diabetes (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Induction of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in proximal tubule cells by urinary protein. Wang, Y., Chen, J., Chen, L., Tay, Y.C., Rangan, G.K., Harris, D.C. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. CC chemokine ligand 2 and its receptor regulate mucosal production of IL-12 and TGF-beta in high dose oral tolerance. DePaolo, R.W., Rollins, B.J., Kuziel, W., Karpus, W.J. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Induction of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 by albumin is mediated by nuclear factor kappaB in proximal tubule cells. Wang, Y., Rangan, G.K., Tay, Y.C., Wang, Y., Harris, D.C. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Characterization of the bovine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 gene. Wempe, F., Kuhlmann, J.K., Scheit, K.H. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Sperm viability is influenced in vitro by the bovine seminal protein aSFP: Effects on motility, mitochondrial activity and lipid peroxidation. Schöneck, C., Braun, J., Einspanier, R. Theriogenology (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Gene expression and cDNA cloning identified a major basic protein constituent of bovine seminal plasma as bovine monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Wempe, F., Henschen, A., Scheit, K.H. DNA Cell Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 by endothelial cells of the bovine corpus luteum: regulation by cytokines but not prostaglandin F2alpha. Cavicchio, V.A., Pru, J.K., Davis, B.S., Davis, J.S., Rueda, B.R., Townson, D.H. Endocrinology (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Cooperative expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 within the bovine corpus luteum: evidence of immune cell-endothelial cell interactions in a coculture system. Liptak, A.R., Sullivan, B.T., Henkes, L.E., Wijayagunawardane, M.P., Miyamoto, A., Davis, J.S., Rueda, B.R., Townson, D.H. Biol. Reprod. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Imaging macrophages and the apoptosis of granulocytes in a rodent model of subacute and chronic abscesses with radiolabeled monocyte chemotactic peptide-1 and annexin V. Blankenberg, F.G., Tait, J.F., Blankenberg, T.A., Post, A.M., Strauss, H.W. European journal of nuclear medicine. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Interleukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and lipopolysaccharide induce expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in calf aortic smooth muscle cells. Meng, F., Deng, Z., Ni, J. J. Tongji Med. Univ. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Purification, sequence analysis, and biological characterization of a second bovine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (Bo MCP-1B). Proost, P., Wuyts, A., Lenaerts, J.P., Van Damme, J. Biochemistry (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) regulates the expression of the CC chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in autocrine-activated endothelial cells. Wempe, F., Lindner, V., Augustin, H.G. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and distribution of immune cell populations in the bovine corpus luteum throughout the estrous cycle. Townson, D.H., O'Connor, C.L., Pru, J.K. Biol. Reprod. (2002) [Pubmed]
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