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Gene Review

HPR  -  haptoglobin-related protein

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: A-259H10.2, HP, Haptoglobin-related protein
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Disease relevance of HPR


Psychiatry related information on HPR


High impact information on HPR


Chemical compound and disease context of HPR


Biological context of HPR


Anatomical context of HPR


Associations of HPR with chemical compounds

  • A second copy of the retrovirus-like sequence occurs between Hpr and Hpp [18].
  • After the duplication event, the first intron of the Hpr gene acquired a 9-kb insert consisting mainly of a retrovirus-like element with a potential primer-binding site homologous to a mouse isoleucine tRNA [19].
  • Haptoglobin and haptoglobin-related protein are homologous hemoglobin-binding proteins consisting of a complement control repeat (alpha-chain) and a serine protease domain (beta-chain) [20].
  • Transcription/translation assay was used to demonstrate that the Hpr message could be translated from the internal methionine codon [2].
  • Fenretinide (HPR) is a synthetic retinoid which has been shown to cause a reduction in the incidence of carcinogen-induced epithelial tumors in experimental animals, and it has been chosen to be tested as a chemopreventive agent in humans [9].

Physical interactions of HPR

  • Based on these results, we propose that Hpr mediates the high affinity binding of TLF-1 to T. b. brucei through a haptoglobin-like receptor [14].
  • However, in contrast to Hp, Hpr did not promote any high-affinity binding to the scavenger receptor CD163 [21].

Regulatory relationships of HPR


Other interactions of HPR


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of HPR


  1. A circulating ligand for galectin-3 is a haptoglobin-related glycoprotein elevated in individuals with colon cancer. Bresalier, R.S., Byrd, J.C., Tessler, D., Lebel, J., Koomen, J., Hawke, D., Half, E., Liu, K.F., Mazurek, N. Gastroenterology (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Transcriptionally active haptoglobin-related (Hpr) gene in hepatoma G2 and leukemia molt-4 cells. Tabak, S., Lev, A., Valansi, C., Aker, O., Shalitin, C. DNA Cell Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Haptoglobin groups in acute myocardial infarction. Fröhlander, N., Johnson, O. Hum. Hered. (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. Haptoglobin phenotypes in diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy. Chandra, T., Lakshmi, C.N., Padma, T., Vidyavathi, M., Satapathy, M. Hum. Hered. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis by fenretinide in small-cell lung cancer cell lines. Kalemkerian, G.P., Slusher, R., Ramalingam, S., Gadgeel, S., Mabry, M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. A brain regional analysis of morphologic and cholinergic abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease. Zubenko, G.S., Moossy, J., Martinez, A.J., Rao, G.R., Kopp, U., Hanin, I. Arch. Neurol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. The effect of seizures on hormones. Pritchard, P.B. Epilepsia (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Haptoglobin-related protein (Hpr) epitopes in breast cancer as a predictor of recurrence of the disease. Kuhajda, F.P., Piantadosi, S., Pasternack, G.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Plasma retinol level reduction by the synthetic retinoid fenretinide: a one year follow-up study of breast cancer patients. Formelli, F., Carsana, R., Costa, A., Buranelli, F., Campa, T., Dossena, G., Magni, A., Pizzichetta, M. Cancer Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide is cytotoxic to melanoma cells in vitro through induction of programmed cell death. Montaldo, P.G., Pagnan, G., Pastorino, F., Chiesa, V., Raffaghello, L., Kirchmeier, M., Allen, T.M., Ponzoni, M. Int. J. Cancer (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Enzymatic assay for L-serine and glyoxylate involving the enzymes in the serine pathway of a methylotroph. Yoshida, T., Mitsunaga, T., Yamada, H., Izumi, Y. Anal. Biochem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. An intronic endogenous retrovirus-like sequence attenuates human haptoglobin-related gene expression in an orientation-dependent manner. Hatada, S., Grant, D.J., Maeda, N. Gene (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Polymorphisms in the human haptoglobin gene cluster: chromosomes with multiple haptoglobin-related (Hpr) genes. Maeda, N., McEvoy, S.M., Harris, H.F., Huisman, T.H., Smithies, O. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  14. Haptoglobin-related protein mediates trypanosome lytic factor binding to trypanosomes. Drain, J., Bishop, J.R., Hajduk, S.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. 4-oxo-fenretinide, a recently identified fenretinide metabolite, induces marked G2-M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in fenretinide-sensitive and fenretinide-resistant cell lines. Villani, M.G., Appierto, V., Cavadini, E., Bettiga, A., Prinetti, A., Clagett-Dame, M., Curley, R.W., Formelli, F. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Inhibition of neuroblastoma-induced angiogenesis by fenretinide. Ribatti, D., Alessandri, G., Baronio, M., Raffaghello, L., Cosimo, E., Marimpietri, D., Montaldo, P.G., De Falco, G., Caruso, A., Vacca, A., Ponzoni, M. Int. J. Cancer (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Bilateral symmetry of morphologic lesions in Alzheimer's disease. Moossy, J., Zubenko, G.S., Martinez, A.J., Rao, G.R. Arch. Neurol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. Complex events in the evolution of the haptoglobin gene cluster in primates. McEvoy, S.M., Maeda, N. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  19. Nucleotide sequence of the haptoglobin and haptoglobin-related gene pair. The haptoglobin-related gene contains a retrovirus-like element. Maeda, N. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. A Unique Loop Extension in the Serine Protease Domain of Haptoglobin Is Essential for CD163 Recognition of the Haptoglobin-Hemoglobin Complex. Nielsen, M.J., Petersen, S.V., Jacobsen, C., Thirup, S., Enghild, J.J., Graversen, J.H., Moestrup, S.K. J. Biol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  21. Haptoglobin-related protein is a high-affinity hemoglobin-binding plasma protein. Nielsen, M.J., Petersen, S.V., Jacobsen, C., Oxvig, C., Rees, D., M??ller, H.J., Moestrup, S.K. Blood (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Expression of oncogenic antigen 519 (OA-519) in prostate cancer is a potential prognostic indicator. Shurbaji, M.S., Kuhajda, F.P., Pasternack, G.R., Thurmond, T.S. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. Expression of haptoglobin-related protein and its potential role as a tumor antigen. Kuhajda, F.P., Katumuluwa, A.I., Pasternack, G.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  24. Analysis of differentially expressed genes in hepatocellular carcinoma with hepatitis C virus by suppression subtractive hybridization. Kotaka, M., Chen, G.G., Lai, P.B., Lau, W.Y., Chan, P.K., Leung, T.W., Li, A.K. Oncol. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Identification of the fenretinide metabolite 4-oxo-fenretinide present in human plasma and formed in human ovarian carcinoma cells through induction of cytochrome P450 26A1. Villani, M.G., Appierto, V., Cavadini, E., Valsecchi, M., Sonnino, S., Curley, R.W., Formelli, F. Clin. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. The haptoglobin-gene deletion responsible for anhaptoglobinemia. Koda, Y., Soejima, M., Yoshioka, N., Kimura, H. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  27. Haptoglobin phenotyping by polyacrylamide gel isoelectric focusing and its application to simultaneous typing of serum proteins. Fukuda, M., Tamaki, Y., Kishida, T. Z. Rechtsmed. (1988) [Pubmed]
  28. HPR perimetry and Humphrey perimetry in glaucomatous children. Marraffa, M., Pucci, V., Marchini, G., Morselli, S., Bellucci, R., Bonomi, L. Documenta ophthalmologica. Advances in ophthalmology. (1995) [Pubmed]
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