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Gene Review

HTL  -  high L-leucine transport

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: HLT, LEUT
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Disease relevance of HTL


Psychiatry related information on HTL

  • A sample of 49 Cantonese speakers was surveyed about their self-perceptions of hearing prior to a 25 dB HTL pure-tone screening test [6].
  • Speech discrimination performance was measured in sound field for 10 young normal-hearing subjects, 10 elderly 'normal-hearing' subjects with a mean pure-tone average of 9.9 dB HTL, and 10 elderly hearing-impaired subjects with a mean pure-tone average of 48.5 dB HTL [7].

High impact information on HTL

  • In the study described here the HTL x-lor products, in the absence of other viral proteins, were able to activate gene expression in trans directed by HTLV LTR [8].
  • They fail to form sheep erythrocyte rosettes and do not react with T-cell-specific antisera (TH1-, HTL-), nor do they possess B-cell markers [9].
  • We synthesized a 100-mer decaepitope polypeptide and tested its capacity to induce multiple CD8(+) IFN-gamma and Th lymphocyte (HTL) responses in HLA transgenic mice [10].
  • These results suggest that the presence of IFN-gamma during the course of an immune response would result in the preferential expansion of HTL of the TH1 phenotype [11].
  • In addition, when fresh OVA-specific HTL clones are derived in the presence of rIL-2 TH2 cells are preferentially obtained, whereas TH1 cells predominate if cloning is performed in rIL-2 plus rIFN-gamma [11].

Biological context of HTL

  • RESULTS: Deviations from single-hit kinetics were frequently observed in the HTL assays and a nonlinear model was therefore used for analysis [1].
  • As these complexes hold the potential to serve as phosphors for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), their electroluminescent performances were evaluated by employing them as dopants of various electron transport layer (ETL) or hole transport layer (HTL) hosts [12].
  • By a different mechanism, warming above 60 degrees C without preillumination reveals chemiluminescence high temperature thermoluminescence (HTL) bands due to the radiative thermolysis of peroxides, which are indicators of oxidative stress in leaves [13].
  • Proviral DNA (gag gene sequences) was found in LC-enriched epidermal cellular DNA from day 4 post-infection with isolate HTL VIII-B and from day 7 with isolate RF [14].
  • It is concluded that although there is a modest relationship between eye color (melanin content) and susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss, this relationship is less apparent in populations exposed to noise levels below 110 dB (re HTL) [15].

Anatomical context of HTL

  • Evidence that participation of the L3T4 associative recognition structure on HTL is less important for cloned T cells which have higher affinity antigen receptors was provided by the second model system which used cloned HTL selected for optimal responses to different concentrations of nominal antigen [16].
  • In the present study, the use of limiting dilution analysis of interleukin-2 (IL-2) producing helper T lymphocyte frequencies (HTL assay) as a way to quantify alloreactivity following HCT was investigated [1].
  • Decreases in CTLp frequencies did not correlate with decreased donor-specific HTL function or suppressor cell activity in peripheral blood samples [17].
  • LC-enriched epidermal cell (EC) suspensions with no CD3+ cells (assessed by flow cytometry and electron microscopy) and uninfected U937 cells (cell-free infection system control) were infected with two isolates (HTL VIII-B and RF) [14].
  • A middle ear pressure of less than or equal to -150 mm H2O or a flat tympanogram and/or tone screening levels > 20 dB HTL at 0.5 kHz and/or 4 kHz are considered as indicative of ear pathology [18].

Associations of HTL with chemical compounds


Other interactions of HTL

  • Initial investigations evaluating the feasibility of gene therapy for ZAP-70 deficiency were performed using HTL V-I-transformed lymphocytes [24].
  • Here, we identified a new class of HT-like proteins in the style of Petunia inflata and named it HTL [22].
  • In addition, very rapid growth of RM was found at 4 kc/s in a patient with sensorineural impairment of 70 db at that frequency as compared with the RM from a frequency with normal HTL [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of HTL

  • CONCLUSIONS: We find that the HTL assay may yield interesting insight into regulation of immune responses following allogeneic HCT, but because of the complexity of the results obtained, its use as a routine procedure to guide immunosuppression cannot be recommended [1].
  • Using limiting dilution techniques the frequencies of proliferating T cell precursors (PTL), cytotoxic T cell precursors (CTL-p), helper T cell precursors (HTL-p), and mature helper T cells (HTL) were determined before and after treatment [20].
  • In the course of measuring the real-ear attenuation at threshold (REAT) of experimenter-inserted E-A-R foam earplugs on 100 subjects, a statistically significant correlation was observed between attenuation and hearing level (for normal listeners, HTL less than or equal to 20 dB) at test frequencies from 2-8 kHz [26].
  • HTL responses were detected in the presence of HLA-class II disparity and showed weak correlations with the severity of acute GVHD (p = 0.054) and with survival after transplantation (p = 0.08) [27].
  • Our results show that the ELISA anti-HTLV test is quite specific for HTL and related disorders, but the antibody titers may be low in some cases in the late stage [28].


  1. Limiting dilution analysis of interleukin-2 producing helper T-cell frequencies as a tool in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Petersen, S.L., Sidorov, I.A., Russell, C.A., Dickmeiss, E., Vindeløv, L.L. Transplantation (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Enumeration of viral antigen-reactive helper T lymphocytes in human peripheral blood by limiting dilution for analysis of viral antigen-reactive T-cell pools in virus-seropositive and virus-seronegative individuals. Clouse, K.A., Adams, P.W., Orosz, C.G. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Enhancement of antitumor immunity of dendritic cells pulsed with heat-treated tumor lysate in murine pancreatic cancer. Kim, H.S., Choo, Y.S., Koo, T., Bang, S., Oh, T.Y., Wen, J., Song, S.Y. Immunol. Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Prevalence of unilateral hearing loss in children: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey II and the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Lee, D.J., Gómez-Marín, O., Lee, H.M. Ear and hearing. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Synthesis of esculentin-1 antibacterial peptide fragments on 1,4-butanediol dimethacrylate cross-linked polystyrene support. Roice, M., Suma, G., Kumar, K.S., Pillai, V.N. J. Protein Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Mismatch between aspects of hearing impairment and hearing disability/handicap in adult/elderly Cantonese speakers: some hypotheses concerning cultural and linguistic influences. Doyle, J., Wong, L.L. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Effects of room reverberation and noise on speech discrimination by the elderly. Harris, R.W., Reitz, M.L. Audiology (1985) [Pubmed]
  8. A transcriptional activator protein encoded by the x-lor region of the human T-cell leukemia virus. Sodroski, J., Rosen, C., Goh, W.C., Haseltine, W. Science (1985) [Pubmed]
  9. Characterization of a unique cell line (LAZ 221) from human acute lymphocytic ("null" cell) leukemia. Lazarus, H., Barell, E.F., Krishan, A., Livingston, D.M., Harris, K., Schlossman, S.F., Chess, L. Cancer Res. (1978) [Pubmed]
  10. A decaepitope polypeptide primes for multiple CD8+ IFN-gamma and Th lymphocyte responses: evaluation of multiepitope polypeptides as a mode for vaccine delivery. Alexander, J., Oseroff, C., Dahlberg, C., Qin, M., Ishioka, G., Beebe, M., Fikes, J., Newman, M., Chesnut, R.W., Morton, P.A., Fok, K., Appella, E., Sette, A. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Regulation of T-cell activation: differences among T-cell subsets. Gajewski, T.F., Schell, S.R., Nau, G., Fitch, F.W. Immunol. Rev. (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Realizing green phosphorescent light-emitting materials from rhenium(i) pyrazolato diimine complexes. Ranjan, S., Lin, S.Y., Hwang, K.C., Chi, Y., Ching, W.L., Liu, C.S., Tao, Y.T., Chien, C.H., Peng, S.M., Lee, G.H. Inorganic chemistry. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Chlorophyll thermoluminescence of leaf discs: simple instruments and progress in signal interpretation open the way to new ecophysiological indicators. Ducruet, J.M. J. Exp. Bot. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Detection of HIV-specific DNA sequences in epidermal Langerhans cells infected in vitro by means of a cell-free system. Charbonnier, A.S., Mallet, F., Fiers, M.M., Desgranges, C., Dezutter-Dambuyant, C., Schmitt, D. Arch. Dermatol. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Eye color and noise-induced hearing loss: a population study. Cunningham, D.R., Norris, M.L. Ear and hearing. (1982) [Pubmed]
  16. Cell surface structures involved in T cell activation. Lancki, D.W., Ma, D.I., Havran, W.L., Fitch, F.W. Immunol. Rev. (1984) [Pubmed]
  17. Donor-specific hyporeactivity after liver transplantation: prominent decreases in donor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursor frequencies independent of changes in helper T lymphocyte precursor frequencies or suppressor cell activity. de Haan, A., van den Berg, A.P., Hepkema, B.G., van Dijk, E., Haagsma, E.B., The, T.H., Slooff, M.J., Lems, S.P., de Leij, L.F., Prop, J. Transplantation (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Screening procedure for detection of middle ear and cochlear disease. Renvall, U., Lidén, G. The Annals of otology, rhinology & laryngology. Supplement. (1980) [Pubmed]
  19. Covalently bound hole-injecting nanostructures. Systematics of molecular architecture, thickness, saturation, and electron-blocking characteristics on organic light-emitting diode luminance, turn-on voltage, and quantum efficiency. Huang, Q., Evmenenko, G.A., Dutta, P., Lee, P., Armstrong, N.R., Marks, T.J. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Comparative analysis of in vivo T cell depletion with radiotherapy, combination chemotherapy, and the monoclonal antibody Campath-1G, using limiting dilution methodology. Theobald, M., Hoffmann, T., Bunjes, D., Heit, W. Transplantation (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. Electrical responses of pineal cells to pineal indoles and putative transmitters in intact and blinded pigeons. Demaine, C., Semm, P. Neuroendocrinology (1984) [Pubmed]
  22. Identification of a new class of pistil-specific proteins of Petunia inflata that is structurally similar to, but functionally distinct from, the self-incompatibility factor HT. Sassa, H., Hirano, H. Mol. Genet. Genomics (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Follow-up of elderly diabetics with or without hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Goriya, Y., Suzuki, T., Takizawa, S., Natto, M. J. Environ. Pathol. Toxicol. Oncol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Retrovirus-mediated transduction of primary ZAP-70-deficient human T cells results in the selective growth advantage of gene-corrected cells: implications for gene therapy. Steinberg, M., Swainson, L., Schwarz, K., Boyer, M., Friedrich, W., Yssel, H., Taylor, N., Noraz, N. Gene Ther. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Reflex modulation and loudness recruitment. Reiter, L.A., Ison, J.R. The Journal of auditory research. (1979) [Pubmed]
  26. Is real-ear attenuation at threshold a function of hearing level? Berger, E.H. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. (1985) [Pubmed]
  27. Evaluation of pretransplant donor anti-recipient cytotoxic and helper T lymphocyte responses as correlates of acute graft-vs.-host disease and survival after unrelated marrow transplantation. Pei, J., Martin, P.J., Longton, G., Masewicz, S., Mickelson, E., Petersdorf, E., Anasetti, C., Hansen, J. Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. (1997) [Pubmed]
  28. Anti-HTLV antibodies in cancer patients, hemophiliacs and uremics: a preliminary report. Lynn, T.C., Hsieh, R.P., Lin, K.T., Shen, M.C., Chen, D.S., Wang, C.H., Liu, C.H., Wang, J.H., Lai, M.Y., Liou, M.F. Zhonghua Min Guo Wei Sheng Wu Ji Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi (1984) [Pubmed]
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