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Gene Review

gdl  -  gonadal

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG33088, CG33756, CG7268, Dmel\CG33756, Gonadal protein gdl
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Disease relevance of gdl

  • Isolation of a novel gene from the DiGeorge syndrome critical region with homology to Drosophila gdl and to human LAMC1 genes [1].
  • Hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila is a syndrome of gonadal atrophy, sterility, and male recombination, and it occurs in the progeny of crosses between males that harbor certain transposable elements (TEs) and females that lack them [2].
  • Gonadal dysgenesis showed a temperature- and sex-dependent repression pattern by the defective P elements of Muller-5 Birmingham chromosomes; at 21 degrees C there was virtually no repression of male sterility, but most effective repression of GD in females [3].
  • Ovarian failure can result from several different genetic mechanisms-X chromosomal abnormalities, autosomal recessive genes causing various types of XX gonadal dysgenesis, and autosomal dominant genes [4].

High impact information on gdl

  • Most cells of the visceral mesoderm fail to differentiate properly, and a portion of them are transformed into body wall musculature and gonadal mesoderm [5].
  • An analysis of germ-line transformants reveals that gdl can be expressed properly outside the overlapping gene environment because a 1.8-kb DNA region contains all the sequences necessary for gdl sex-specific expression [6].
  • The Drosophila gonadal (gdl) gene is a member of a gene cluster that maps cytogenetically to the 71CD interval of chromosome 3 [6].
  • We discuss recent advances in understanding the migration of the ovarian border cells, embryonic blood cells, primordial germ cells, somatic gonadal precursors, and tracheal cells [7].
  • The expression of scully mRNA is general to many tissues including the CNS; however, it is highest in both embryonic gonadal primordia and mature ovaries and testes [8].

Biological context of gdl

  • An analysis of germ-line transformants harboring gdl-lacZ gene fusions provides information on gdl gene expression during gametogenesis [9].
  • A common open reading frame (ORF) of 193 codons (ORF193) is present in all four gdl transcripts; a consequence of the additional sequences at the 5' end of the gdlM transcripts is the presence of an additional ORF of 39 codons (ORF39) [9].
  • We have identified two DNA sequences required for the proper germ line expression of the Drosophila gonadal (gdl) gene [10].
  • Furthermore, we present evidence from genetic analysis suggesting that, before stage 10 of embryogenesis, gonadal mesoderm and the fat body have not yet been specified as different cell types, but exist as a common pool of precursor cells requiring the functions of the tin, zfh-1 and cli genes for their development [11].
  • The homeotic gene abdominalA limits the region of serpent activity by interfering in a mutually repressive feed back loop between gonadal and fat body development [12].

Anatomical context of gdl

  • In many animal species, germ-line progenitors associate with gonadal somatic cells to form the embryonic gonads (EGs) that later develop into functional organ producing gametes [13].
  • VASA protein is present in fetal and adult gonadal germ cells in both males and females and is most abundant in spermatocytes and mature oocytes [14].
  • The balance between fat body and somatic gonadal fate in these serially homologous cell clusters is controlled by at least five genes [12].
  • Here, we report that deregulated expression of serpent in the mesoderm induces the formation of ectopic fat cells and prevents the migration and coalescence of the somatic gonadal precursors [15].
  • Gonads were mosaic with a frequency of 10.5% which indicates that the gonadal primordium originates from about 10 progenitor cells, and together with other evidence, suggests that these progenitor cells are located within a single segment (or parasegment) [16].

Associations of gdl with chemical compounds

  • Glycoprotein hormones play important roles in thyroid and gonadal function in vertebrates [17].
  • Males of the mutant strains failed to induce gonadal dysgenesis in crosses to Oregon-R females at 28.5 degrees C. Complementation tests showed that 3 of the induced mutations were mei-9 alleles, 2 were mei-41 alleles, 1 was a mus102 allele, and 2 were alleles at a newly identified MMS-sensitive locus, mus112 (map position: 1-32.8) [18].
  • These data, when combined with evidence that 1,3-butadiene is carcinogenic in rodent gonadal tissues and is associated with gonadal atrophy in mice, constitute suggestive evidence that 1,3-butadiene may be a human germ cell mutagen [19].

Regulatory relationships of gdl


Other interactions of gdl


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of gdl


  1. Isolation of a novel gene from the DiGeorge syndrome critical region with homology to Drosophila gdl and to human LAMC1 genes. Demczuk, S., Thomas, G., Aurias, A. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Evidence for maternally transmitted small interfering RNA in the repression of transposition in Drosophila virilis. Blumenstiel, J.P., Hartl, D.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. A high level of hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila: high thermosensitivity, dependence on DNA repair, and incomplete cytotype regulation. Margulies, L. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Ovarian differentiation and gonadal failure. Simpson, J.L., Rajkovic, A. Am. J. Med. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. tinman and bagpipe: two homeo box genes that determine cell fates in the dorsal mesoderm of Drosophila. Azpiazu, N., Frasch, M. Genes Dev. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Overlapping genes of Drosophila melanogaster: organization of the z600-gonadal-Eip28/29 gene cluster. Schulz, R.A., Butler, B.A. Genes Dev. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Genes that drive invasion and migration in Drosophila. Starz-Gaiano, M., Montell, D.J. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. scully, an essential gene of Drosophila, is homologous to mammalian mitochondrial type II L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase/amyloid-beta peptide-binding protein. Torroja, L., Ortuño-Sahagún, D., Ferrús, A., Hämmerle, B., Barbas, J.A. J. Cell Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Expression of the Drosophila gonadal gene: alternative promoters control the germ-line expression of monocistronic and bicistronic gene transcripts. Schulz, R.A., Miksch, J.L., Xie, X.L., Cornish, J.A., Galewsky, S. Development (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. cis-acting sequences required for the germ line expression of the Drosophila gonadal gene. Schulz, R.A., Xie, X.L., Miksch, J.L. Dev. Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Gonadal mesoderm and fat body initially follow a common developmental path in Drosophila. Moore, L.A., Broihier, H.T., Van Doren, M., Lehmann, R. Development (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. The genetic control of the distinction between fat body and gonadal mesoderm in Drosophila. Riechmann, V., Rehorn, K.P., Reuter, R., Leptin, M. Development (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Molecular characterization of embryonic gonads by gene expression profiling in Drosophila melanogaster. Shigenobu, S., Kitadate, Y., Noda, C., Kobayashi, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. The human VASA gene is specifically expressed in the germ cell lineage. Castrillon, D.H., Quade, B.J., Wang, T.Y., Quigley, C., Crum, C.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. serpent, a GATA-like transcription factor gene, induces fat-cell development in Drosophila melanogaster. Hayes, S.A., Miller, J.M., Hoshizaki, D.K. Development (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Gynandromorphs of Drosophila suggest one common primordium for the somatic cells of the female and male gonads in the region of abdominal segments 4 and 5. Szabad, J., Nöthiger, R. Development (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Heterodimeric fly glycoprotein hormone-alpha2 (GPA2) and glycoprotein hormone-beta5 (GPB5) activate fly leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor-1 (DLGR1) and stimulation of human thyrotropin receptors by chimeric fly GPA2 and human GPB5. Sudo, S., Kuwabara, Y., Park, J.I., Hsu, S.Y., Hsueh, A.J. Endocrinology (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Recovery and characterization of hybrid dysgenesis-induced mei-9 and mei-41 alleles of Drosophila melanogaster. Yamamoto, A.H., Brodberg, R.K., Banga, S.S., Boyd, J.B., Mason, J.M. Mutat. Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. The Reproductive Effects Assessment Group's report on the mutagenicity of 1,3-butadiene and its reactive metabolites. Rosenthal, S.L. Environmental mutagenesis. (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. Dmaf, a novel member of Maf transcription factor family is expressed in somatic gonadal cells during embryonic development and gametogenesis in Drosophila. Kawashima, T., Nakamura, A., Yasuda, K., Kageyama, Y. Gene Expr. Patterns (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. zfh-1 is required for germ cell migration and gonadal mesoderm development in Drosophila. Broihier, H.T., Moore, L.A., Van Doren, M., Newman, S., Lehmann, R. Development (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Gonad formation and development requires the abd-A domain of the bithorax complex in Drosophila melanogaster. Cumberledge, S., Szabad, J., Sakonju, S. Development (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. Sex determination in the germ line of Drosophila depends on genetic signals and inductive somatic factors. Nöthiger, R., Jonglez, M., Leuthold, M., Meier-Gerschwiler, P., Weber, T. Development (1989) [Pubmed]
  24. A Drosophila group E Sox gene is dynamically expressed in the embryonic alimentary canal. Hui Yong Loh, S., Russell, S. Mech. Dev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. The 412 retrotransposon and the development of gonadal mesoderm in Drosophila. Brookman, J.J., Toosy, A.T., Shashidhara, L.S., White, R.A. Development (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. An E box element is required for the expression of the ad4bp gene, a mammalian homologue of ftz-f1 gene, which is essential for adrenal and gonadal development. Nomura, M., Bärtsch, S., Nawata, H., Omura, T., Morohashi, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. Distribution of hobo transposable elements in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Pascual, L., Periquet, G. Mol. Biol. Evol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  28. Genetic recombination and DNA transpositions induced by pteridines and extracts of pteridine-treated diapausing chrysalids and mutants injected in Drosophila melanogaster. L'Hélias, C., Proust, J. Mutat. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
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