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Gene Review

PTH  -  parathyroid hormone

Sus scrofa

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Disease relevance of PTH


High impact information on PTH

  • The rise in alkaline phosphatase activity was specific for T3 since growth-plate cartilage alkaline phosphatase activity was not increased by cortisol, insulin, parathyroid hormone, or 5% fetal calf serum [6].
  • To study the mechanism of PTH action, we used AOK-B50 cells, a porcine kidney-cell line with stably transfected opossum PTH receptor in which both the 24-hydroxylase mRNA and activity are down-regulated by PTH [7].
  • Because the untranslated regions of genes can determine the stability of its transcripts, we studied the 5' untranslated region and the 3' untranslated region of the rat 24-hydroxylase gene by using reporter-gene strategy to identify possible PTH sites of action [7].
  • However, the sites and mechanism whereby PTH causes 24-hydroxylase mRNA degradation are unknown [7].
  • However, the mechanism of down-regulation of the 24-hydroxylase by parathyroid hormone (PTH) has not yet been elucidated [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of PTH


Biological context of PTH


Anatomical context of PTH

  • Here we report the cloning of the porcine 24-hydroxylase, and show that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-stimulated 24-hydroxylase mRNA and activity are repressed by PTH in AOK-B50 cells, a porcine kidney proximal tubule cell line with stably transfected opossum PTH receptors [10].
  • Parathyroid hormone (PTH) activates both adenylate cyclase and phospholipase C in target cells, and cloned PTH/PTH-related protein (PTHrP) receptor can mediate both responses when expressed in host cells such as LLC-PK1 renal epithelial cells [1].
  • CgA, in turn, is an acidic glycoprotein of about 450 amino acids that is costored and cosecreted with PTH in the parathyroid gland and with native hormones of many endocrine tissues [15].
  • Parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related peptide receptor density modulates activation of phospholipase C and phosphate transport by PTH in LLC-PK1 cells [16].
  • The muscle cells in which cholecystokinin octapeptide and PTH receptors were protected completely abolished the inhibitory responses to VIP and PACAP [17].

Associations of PTH with chemical compounds

  • 8. Regulation of HSP70 gene transcription by PTH may be a common cellular response to the hormone, which, in some cells, may not be mediated by activation of adenylate cyclase or protein kinase C [1].
  • Increases in serum PTH in this group were not accompanied by increases in calcitriol [18].
  • We immunized seven guinea pigs and two goats with the desalted 7.5% TCA supernate (containing about 2% carboxyl-terminal hPTH fragments); three of the guinea pigs and one goat produced high affinity antisera with predominant specificity for the carboxyl-terminal region of PTH [19].
  • Bovine PTH (5U/ml equal to 4.2 times 10-7M) significantly increased the concentration of cyclic AMP/mug DNA in periosteum, osteoblasts, and osteocytes but not in marrow cells [20].
  • The stimulatory action of dexamethasone on PTH and CgA mRNA could be noted in 12 h or less and continued through 24-48 h [21].

Regulatory relationships of PTH


Other interactions of PTH

  • The new analogs presented should be useful as minimum-length functional probes of the PTH-PTH receptor interaction mechanism [24].
  • It remains to be determined if the changes in transcription of the PTH and CgA genes and stability of their respective mRNAs are direct effects of pancreastatin or secondary actions due to the inhibition of secretion [15].
  • In Dex alone treated piglets, PTH was significantly elevated (7-fold), whereas osteocalcin and N-telopeptide were significantly reduced compared with control values [25].
  • The muscle cells in which cholecystokinin octapeptide and VIP or PACAP receptors were protected completely abolished the inhibitory response to PTH [17].
  • Similar tests on alpha-methyl-D-glucoside uptake showed that serum, TPA, PTH, and AVP had no significant effect on phlorizin-sensitive uptake; however, calcitonin increased uptake by 84% (n = 18) [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PTH


  1. Regulation of HSP70 by PTH: a model of gene regulation not mediated by changes in cAMP levels. Fukayama, S., Lanske, B., Guo, J., Kronenberg, H.M., Bringhurst, F.R. Am. J. Physiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Parastatin (porcine chromogranin A347-419), a novel chromogranin A-derived peptide, inhibits parathyroid cell secretion. Fasciotto, B.H., Trauss, C.A., Greeley, G.H., Cohn, D.V. Endocrinology (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Vitamin A influence on calcium metabolism and calcification. Navia, J.M., Harris, S.S. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1980) [Pubmed]
  4. Effect of parathyroid hormone on gastrin and somatostatin release from the gastric antrum. Selking, O., Gustavsson, S., Johansson, H., Lundqvist, G. Ups. J. Med. Sci. (1981) [Pubmed]
  5. Immunological evidences for the presence of small late carboxylterminal fragment(s) of human parathyroid hormone (PTH) in circulation in man. D'Amour, P., Labelle, F., Wolde-Giorghis, R., Hamel, L. Journal of immunoassay. (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. Triiodothyronine stimulates maturation of porcine growth-plate cartilage in vitro. Burch, W.M., Lebovitz, H.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1982) [Pubmed]
  7. Parathyroid hormone regulates 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3)-24-hydroxylase mRNA by altering its stability. Zierold, C., Mings, J.A., DeLuca, H.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. The effect of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol on the parathyroid hormone secretion of porcine parathyroid glands and human parathyroid adenomas in vitro. Altenähr, E., Dietel, M., Dorn, G., Montz, R. Acta Endocrinol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  9. Aging and parathyroid hormone secretion. Fujita, T., Ohata, M., Ota, K., Tsuda, T., Uezu, A. Journal of gerontology. (1976) [Pubmed]
  10. Regulation of the procine 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-24-hydroxylase (CYP24) by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and parathyroid hormone in AOK-B50 cells. Zierold, C., Reinholz, G.G., Mings, J.A., Prahl, J.M., DeLuca, H.F. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Molecular cloning, characterization, and promoter analysis of the human 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1alpha-hydroxylase gene. Kong, X.F., Zhu, X.H., Pei, Y.L., Jackson, D.M., Holick, M.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Modification of plasma membrane of differentiating preosseous chondrocytes: evidence for a degradative process in the mechanism of matrix vesicle formation. Pollesello, P., D'Andrea, P., Martina, M., de Bernard, B., Vittur, F. Exp. Cell Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Cloned, stably expressed parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related peptide receptors activate multiple messenger signals and biological responses in LLC-PK1 kidney cells. Bringhurst, F.R., Juppner, H., Guo, J., Urena, P., Potts, J.T., Kronenberg, H.M., Abou-Samra, A.B., Segre, G.V. Endocrinology (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Natriuretic hormone receptors and actions on bone endothelial cells. De Feo, M.L., Franceschelli, F., Frediani, U., Tosti-Guerra, C., Crescioli, C., Tanini, A., Bartolini, O., Becorpi, A., Serio, M., Brandi, M.L. Endocrinology (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Pancreastatin, a chromogranin A-derived peptide, inhibits transcription of the parathyroid hormone and chromogranin A genes and decreases the stability of the respective messenger ribonucleic acids in parathyroid cells in culture. Zhang, J.X., Fasciotto, B.H., Darling, D.S., Cohn, D.V. Endocrinology (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related peptide receptor density modulates activation of phospholipase C and phosphate transport by PTH in LLC-PK1 cells. Guo, J., Iida-Klein, A., Huang, X., Abou-Samra, A.B., Segre, G.V., Bringhurst, F.R. Endocrinology (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Interactive mechanisms among pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide, vasoactive intestinal peptide, and parathyroid hormone receptors in guinea pig cecal circular smooth muscle cells. Motomura, Y., Chijiiwa, Y., Iwakiri, Y., Ochiai, T., Nawata, H. Endocrinology (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Evaluation of the skeletal effects of combined mild dietary calcium restriction and ovariectomy in Sinclair S-1 minipigs: a pilot study. Mosekilde, L., Weisbrode, S.E., Safron, J.A., Stills, H.F., Jankowsky, M.L., Ebert, D.C., Danielsen, C.C., Søgaard, C.H., Franks, A.F., Stevens, M.L. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. Carboxyl-terminal fragments of human parathyroid hormone in parathyroid tumors: unique new source of immunogens for the production of antisera potentially useful in the radioimmunoassay of parathyroid hormone in human serum. Di Bella, F.P., Gilkinson, J.B., Flueck, J., Arnaud, C.D. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1978) [Pubmed]
  20. Cyclic 3', 5'-adenosine monophosphate levels in separated bone cells. Smith, D.M., Johnston, C.C. Endocrinology (1975) [Pubmed]
  21. Dexamethasone and calcium interact in the regulation of parathormone and chromogranin-A secretion and messenger ribonucleic acid levels in parathyroid cells. Zhang, J.X., Fasciotto, B.H., Cohn, D.V. Endocrinology (1993) [Pubmed]
  22. Substance P regulates PTH secretion through the neurokinin-1 receptor. Galvin, R.J., Babbey, L.E., Hipskind, P.A., Lamar, T., George, C.A., Baez, M., Gitter, B.D. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Parathyroid hormone stimulates mammalian renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1 alpha-hydroxylase in vitro. Kremer, R., Goltzman, D. Endocrinology (1982) [Pubmed]
  24. Amino-terminal parathyroid hormone fragment analogs containing alpha,alpha-di-alkyl amino acids at positions 1 and 3. Shimizu, N., Dean, T., Khatri, A., Gardella, T.J. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Tamoxifen attenuates the effects of exogenous glucocorticoid on bone formation and growth in piglets. Fritz, P.C., Ward, W.E., Atkinson, S.A., Tenenbaum, H.C. Endocrinology (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Growth, enzyme activity, sugar transport, and hormone supplement responses in cells cloned from a pig kidney cell line LLC-PK1. Miller, J.H., Heath, L.N. J. Cell. Physiol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  27. Parathyroid response to aluminum in vitro: ultrastructural changes and PTH release. Bourdeau, A.M., Plachot, J.J., Cournot-Witmer, G., Pointillart, A., Balsan, S., Sachs, C. Kidney Int. (1987) [Pubmed]
  28. Nicotine stimulates osteoclast resorption in a porcine marrow cell model. Henemyre, C.L., Scales, D.K., Hokett, S.D., Cuenin, M.F., Peacock, M.E., Parker, M.H., Brewer, P.D., Chuang, A.H. J. Periodontol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Renal morphology in pigs with experimental hyperparathyroidism. Ultrastructural findings. Boquist, L., Fåhraeus, B. Acta pathologica et microbiologica Scandinavica. Section A, Pathology. (1975) [Pubmed]
  30. Calcium homeostasis in the fetal pig. Care, A.D., Ross, R., Pickard, D.W., Weatherley, A.J., Garel, J.M., Manning, R.M., Allgrove, J., Papapoulos, S., O'Riordan, J.L. J. Dev. Physiol. (1982) [Pubmed]
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