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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Hypocalcemia


Psychiatry related information on Hypocalcemia


High impact information on Hypocalcemia


Chemical compound and disease context of Hypocalcemia


Biological context of Hypocalcemia

  • Consequently, PTH and 1,25(OH)2D3 exhibit discrete and collaborative roles in modulating skeletal and calcium homeostasis and loss of the renal component of calcium conservation might be the major factor contributing to the lethal hypocalcemia in double mutants [19].
  • The experimental induction of parturient of parturient hypocalcemia by the prepartal administration of EHDP provides a valuable model for studies to investigate the mechanisms in bone responsible for the development of severe hypocalcemia that occurs in response to the increased calcium demand imposed by parturition and the initiation of lactation [20].
  • We conclude that hypocalcemia, induced by the demands for Ca for fetal calcification and milk production, appears to be a controlling factor in serum calcitriol elevation in late pregnancy and throughout lactation, whereas PTH may be important for calcitriol synthesis without playing a direct regulatory role [21].
  • We now report the effect of chronic hypercalcemia, hypocalcemia, and vitamin D deficiency on calcitonin gene expression in vivo in the rat [22].
  • The missense mutation E604K (G2182A; GenBank accession no. U20759), which affects an amino acid residue in the C terminus of the cysteine-rich domain of the extracellular head, cosegregated with hypocalcemia in all seven individuals for whom DNA was available [23].

Anatomical context of Hypocalcemia

  • Reversible parkinsonism and asymptomatic hypocalcemia with basal ganglia calcification from hypoparathyroidism 26 years after thyroid surgery [24].
  • These data suggest that parathyroid gland dysfunction is a cause of hypocalcemia in severe malaria without ARF, as seen in group 1 patients; in patients with ARF, the effect of the combination of phosphate retention and altered vitamin D metabolism on skeletal PTH sensitivity is of prime significance [25].
  • EDTA infusion directly to five fetuses produced significant hypocalcemia (maximal decline averaging 19 +/- 2%) and PTH response (maximal increase averaging 46 +/- 5%) [26].
  • This is followed by an increase in the long form of PRLR mRNA expression in the choroid plexus of the brain, which provides protection against restraint stress in water-induced hypocalcemia and gastric erosions [27].
  • During wallerian degeneration of nerves after SCGx, a higher hypocalcemia and a lower PTH response were found as compared to sham-SCGx rats, regardless of whether the pineal gland was present or not [28].

Gene context of Hypocalcemia

  • Mutation of TRPM6 causes familial hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia [9].
  • Studies in kindreds with VDR mutations (vitamin D-dependent rickets type II, VDDR II) have demonstrated hypocalcemia, hyperparathyroidism, rickets, and osteomalacia [29].
  • We hypothesized that the cytokines increase CASR expression and reduce the set point for parathyroid hormone suppression by extracellular calcium, leading to hypocalcemia and hypoparathyroidism [30].
  • In conclusion, our study shows that extracellular Ca regulates VDR expression by parathyroid cells independently of CTR and that by this mechanism hypocalcemia may prevent the feedback of CTR on the parathyroids [31].
  • To elucidate possible negative feedback regulation of circulating PTH-related protein (PTHrP) by serum calcium levels, we measured serum immunoreactive PTHrP (iPTHrP) by a specific RIA for PTHrP-(1-34) in patients with hypocalcemia due to PTH deficiency or resistance [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Hypocalcemia


  1. Clinical features and short-term outcomes of 144 patients with SARS in the greater Toronto area. Booth, C.M., Matukas, L.M., Tomlinson, G.A., Rachlis, A.R., Rose, D.B., Dwosh, H.A., Walmsley, S.L., Mazzulli, T., Avendano, M., Derkach, P., Ephtimios, I.E., Kitai, I., Mederski, B.D., Shadowitz, S.B., Gold, W.L., Hawryluck, L.A., Rea, E., Chenkin, J.S., Cescon, D.W., Poutanen, S.M., Detsky, A.S. JAMA (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Hypocalcemia increases and hypercalcemia decreases the steady-state level of parathyroid hormone messenger RNA in the rat. Yamamoto, M., Igarashi, T., Muramatsu, M., Fukagawa, M., Motokura, T., Ogata, E. J. Clin. Invest. (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Autosomal dominant pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib is associated with a heterozygous microdeletion that likely disrupts a putative imprinting control element of GNAS. Bastepe, M., Fröhlich, L.F., Hendy, G.N., Indridason, O.S., Josse, R.G., Koshiyama, H., Körkkö, J., Nakamoto, J.M., Rosenbloom, A.L., Slyper, A.H., Sugimoto, T., Tsatsoulis, A., Crawford, J.D., Jüppner, H. J. Clin. Invest. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Urinary cyclic AMP analyzed as a function of the serum calcium and parathyroid hormone in the idfferential diagnosis of hypercalcemia. Shaw, J.W., Oldham, S.B., Rosoff, L., Bethune, J.E., Fichman, M.P. J. Clin. Invest. (1977) [Pubmed]
  5. Letter: Hypocalcemia and parathyroid hormone in pancreatitis. Robertson, G.M. Ann. Intern. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  6. Reversible dementia in idiopathic hypoparathyroidism associated with normocalcemia. Stuerenburg, H.J., Hansen, H.C., Thie, A., Kunze, K. Neurology (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. A case of chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome diagnosed in a 32-year-old man with hypoparathyroidism. Maalouf, N.M., Sakhaee, K., Odvina, C.V. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Acute alkalosis, but not acute hypocalcemia, increases panic behavior in an animal model. Di Lorenzo, R., Bernardi, M., Genedani, S., Zirilli, E., Grossi, G., Guaraldi, G.P., Bertolini, A. Physiol. Behav. (1987) [Pubmed]
  9. Mutation of TRPM6 causes familial hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia. Walder, R.Y., Landau, D., Meyer, P., Shalev, H., Tsolia, M., Borochowitz, Z., Boettger, M.B., Beck, G.E., Englehardt, R.K., Carmi, R., Sheffield, V.C. Nat. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia is caused by mutations in TRPM6, a new member of the TRPM gene family. Schlingmann, K.P., Weber, S., Peters, M., Niemann Nejsum, L., Vitzthum, H., Klingel, K., Kratz, M., Haddad, E., Ristoff, E., Dinour, D., Syrrou, M., Nielsen, S., Sassen, M., Waldegger, S., Seyberth, H.W., Konrad, M. Nat. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Inactivating mutations in the 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1alpha-hydroxylase gene in patients with pseudovitamin D-deficiency rickets. Kitanaka, S., Takeyama, K., Murayama, A., Sato, T., Okumura, K., Nogami, M., Hasegawa, Y., Niimi, H., Yanagisawa, J., Tanaka, T., Kato, S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. A familial syndrome of hypocalcemia with hypercalciuria due to mutations in the calcium-sensing receptor. Pearce, S.H., Williamson, C., Kifor, O., Bai, M., Coulthard, M.G., Davies, M., Lewis-Barned, N., McCredie, D., Powell, H., Kendall-Taylor, P., Brown, E.M., Thakker, R.V. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Transient hypoparathyroidism during acute alcohol intoxication. Laitinen, K., Lamberg-Allardt, C., Tunninen, R., Karonen, S.L., Tähtelä, R., Ylikahri, R., Välimäki, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Response of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 to hypocalcemia in human subjects. Bilezikian, J.P., Canfield, R.E., Jacobs, T.P., Polay, J.S., D'Adamo, A.P., Eisman, J.A., DeLuca, H.F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  15. Hypoparathyroidism in Wilson's disease. Carpenter, T.O., Carnes, D.L., Anast, C.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. Vitamin-D-dependent rickets type II. Resistance of target organs to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Brooks, M.H., Bell, N.H., Love, L., Stern, P.H., Orfei, E., Queener, S.F., Hamstra, A.J., DeLuca, H.F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  17. Hypocalcemia and inhibition of parathyroid hormone secretion after administration of WR-2721 (a radioprotective and chemoprotective agent). Glover, D., Riley, L., Carmichael, K., Spar, B., Glick, J., Kligerman, M.M., Agus, Z.S., Slatopolsky, E., Attie, M., Goldfarb, S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  18. Insensitivity to digoxin associated with hypocalcemia. Chopra, D., Janson, P., Sawin, C.T. N. Engl. J. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  19. Genetic models show that parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 play distinct and synergistic roles in postnatal mineral ion homeostasis and skeletal development. Xue, Y., Karaplis, A.C., Hendy, G.N., Goltzman, D., Miao, D. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Experimental parturient hypocalcemia in cows following prepartal chemical inhibition of bone resportion. Yarrington, J.T., Capen, C.C., Black, H.E., Re, R., Potts, J.T., Geho, W.B. Am. J. Pathol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  21. Regulation of serum calcitriol by serum ionized calcium in rats during pregnancy and lactation. Boass, A., Garner, S.C., Schultz, V.L., Toverud, S.U. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Regulation of calcitonin gene expression by hypocalcemia, hypercalcemia, and vitamin D in the rat. Naveh-Many, T., Raue, F., Grauer, A., Silver, J. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. Autosomal dominant hypocalcemia: a novel activating mutation (E604K) in the cysteine-rich domain of the calcium-sensing receptor. Tan, Y.M., Cardinal, J., Franks, A.H., Mun, H.C., Lewis, N., Harris, L.B., Prins, J.B., Conigrave, A.D. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Reversible parkinsonism and asymptomatic hypocalcemia with basal ganglia calcification from hypoparathyroidism 26 years after thyroid surgery. Tambyah, P.A., Ong, B.K., Lee, K.O. Am. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Mineral homoeostasis in acute renal failure complicating severe falciparum malaria. St John, A., Davis, T.M., Binh, T.Q., Thu, L.T., Dyer, J.R., Anh, T.K. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. Maternal and fetal parathyroid hormone responsiveness in pregnant primates. Pitkin, R.M., Reynolds, W.A., Williams, G.A., Kawahara, W., Bauman, A.F., Hargis, G.K. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1980) [Pubmed]
  27. Prolactin prevents acute stress-induced hypocalcemia and ulcerogenesis by acting in the brain of rat. Fujikawa, T., Soya, H., Tamashiro, K.L., Sakai, R.R., McEwen, B.S., Nakai, N., Ogata, M., Suzuki, I., Nakashima, K. Endocrinology (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. The influence of cervical sympathetic neurons on parathyroid hormone and calcitonin release in the rat: independence of pineal mediation. Stern, J.E., Esquifino, A.I., García Bonacho, M., Cardinali, D.P. J. Pineal Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  29. Targeted ablation of the vitamin D receptor: an animal model of vitamin D-dependent rickets type II with alopecia. Li, Y.C., Pirro, A.E., Amling, M., Delling, G., Baron, R., Bronson, R., Demay, M.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Calcium-sensing receptor gene transcription is up-regulated by the proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1beta. Role of the NF-kappaB PATHWAY and kappaB elements. Canaff, L., Hendy, G.N. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Regulation of parathyroid vitamin D receptor expression by extracellular calcium. Garfia, B., Cañadillas, S., Canalejo, A., Luque, F., Siendones, E., Quesada, M., Almadén, Y., Aguilera-Tejero, E., Rodríguez, M. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. Increased serum immunoreactive parathyroid hormone-related protein levels in chronic hypocalcemia. Mune, T., Katakami, H., Morita, M., Noguchi, S., Ushiroda, Y., Matsukura, S., Yasuda, K., Miura, K. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1994) [Pubmed]
  33. Latent hypoparathyroidism in children with conotruncal cardiac defects. Cuneo, B.F., Langman, C.B., Ilbawi, M.N., Ramakrishnan, V., Cutilletta, A., Driscoll, D.A. Circulation (1996) [Pubmed]
  34. UFD1L, a developmentally expressed ubiquitination gene, is deleted in CATCH 22 syndrome. Pizzuti, A., Novelli, G., Ratti, A., Amati, F., Mari, A., Calabrese, G., Nicolis, S., Silani, V., Marino, B., Scarlato, G., Ottolenghi, S., Dallapiccola, B. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  35. Applicability of intraoperative parathyroid hormone assay during thyroidectomy. Lo, C.Y., Luk, J.M., Tam, S.C. Ann. Surg. (2002) [Pubmed]
  36. Fibroblast growth factor-23 is regulated by 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Collins, M.T., Lindsay, J.R., Jain, A., Kelly, M.H., Cutler, C.M., Weinstein, L.S., Liu, J., Fedarko, N.S., Winer, K.K. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  37. Hypercalcemia and elevated calcitriol in a maintenance dialysis patient with tuberculosis. Felsenfeld, A.J., Drezner, M.K., Llach, F. Arch. Intern. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
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