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Gene Review

PAEP  -  progestagen-associated endometrial protein

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: GD, GdA, GdF, GdS, Glycodelin, ...
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Disease relevance of PAEP

  • As in decidual tissues, PAEP mRNA in endometriosis was abundant in the glandular compartment [1].
  • We also found that the PAEP gene was expressed in endometriosis and in a borderline endometrioid adenoma [1].
  • There was no difference in PP14 concentrations between those women with and without intermenstrual bleeding [2].
  • The levels of PP12 were significantly elevated in patients with severe preeclampsia, whereas PP14 levels were unaffected [3].
  • PP 14 per total protein in the uterine flushings was significantly correlated with serum E(2) on the day of hCG (r = 0.459; P = 0.009) in natural cycles only but not in stimulated cycles [4].

High impact information on PAEP


Chemical compound and disease context of PAEP


Biological context of PAEP


Anatomical context of PAEP


Associations of PAEP with chemical compounds

  • The serum progesterone concentration decreased significantly during Danazol treatment, as did the serum levels of 34K IGF-bp and PP14 [19].
  • Negative regulation of T cell activation by placental protein 14 is mediated by the tyrosine phosphatase receptor CD45 [20].
  • Placental protein 14 (PP14) is the major glycoprotein synthesized by late secretory endometrium and gestational decidua [21].
  • We observe that the apoptotic activity requires the presence of sialic acid residues on the complex glycans, as in the case of GdA; however, complex glycans of GdS are non-sialylated [22].
  • GdA has high mannose-, hybrid-, and complex-type biantennary oligosaccharides including structures with fucosylated or sialylated N, N'-diacetyllactosediamine (GalNAcbeta1-4GlcNAc) sequences, which are rare in other human glycoproteins [23].

Regulatory relationships of PAEP

  • The genes coding for these two proteins are expressed in separate types of the endometrial cells, with the IGFBP-1 gene being expressed in the stromal and the beta LG/PP14 gene in the glandular epithelial cells [24].

Other interactions of PAEP


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PAEP


  1. Localization of progesterone-associated endometrial protein mRNA by in-situ hybridization in human pregnancy decidua, endometriosis and borderline endometrioid adenoma. Kämäräinen, M., Leivo, I., Julkunen, M., Seppälä, M. J. Mol. Endocrinol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Mechanism of action of the intrauterine contraceptive device: evidence for a specific biochemical deficiency in the endometrium. Seleem, S., Hills, F.A., Salem, H.T., El-Nashar, E.M., Chard, T. Hum. Reprod. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Placental proteins 12 and 14 in pre-eclampsia. Howell, R.J., Economides, D., Teisner, B., Farkas, A.G., Chard, T. Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica. (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. Concentrations of endometrial protein PP 14 and CA-125 in uterine flushings performed in natural and stimulated cycles. Ng, E.H., Laird, S.M., Li, T.C., Yeung, W.S., Ho, P.C. Hum. Reprod. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Multicellular origin of parathyroid "adenomas". Fialkow, P.J., Jackson, C.E., Block, M.A., Greenawald, K.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  6. Polycythemia vera: stem-cell and probable clonal origin of the disease. Adamson, J.W., Fialkow, P.J., Murphy, S., Prchal, J.F., Steinmann, L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  7. Probable clonal origin of neurofibrosarcoma in a patient with hereditary neurofibromatosis. Friedman, J.M., Fialkow, P.J., Greene, C.L., Weinberg, M.N. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1982) [Pubmed]
  8. Structural organization of the gene for prostaglandin D synthase in the rat brain. Igarashi, M., Nagata, A., Toh, H., Urade, Y., Hayaishi, O. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Multiple forms of mRNA encoding human pregnancy-associated endometrial alpha 2-globulin, a beta-lactoglobulin homologue. Garde, J., Bell, S.C., Eperon, I.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Immunohistological localization of pregnancy-associated endometrial alpha 2-globulin (alpha 2-PEG) in endometrial adenocarcinoma and effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate. Wood, P.L., Waites, G.T., MacVicar, J., Davidson, A.C., Walker, R.A., Bell, S.C. British journal of obstetrics and gynaecology. (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. Glycodelins GdA and GdS modified by 3-hydroxyphthalic anhydride inhibit gp120-CD4 binding and HIV-1 infection in vitro. Seppälä, M., Jiang, S., Strick, N., Lin, K., Li, Y.Y., Koistinen, H., Koistinen, R., Neurath, A.R. Lab. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Placental protein 14 levels in uterine flushing and plasma of women with unexplained infertility. Mackenna, A., Li, T.C., Dalton, C., Bolton, A., Cooke, I. Fertil. Steril. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. A prospective randomized controlled study comparing the morphological and biochemical responses of the endometrium to two different forms of 'period-free' hormone replacement therapy. Okon, M.A., Lee, S., Laird, S.M., Li, T.C. Hum. Reprod. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Sequential estrogen and progestogen therapy: assessment of progestational effects on the postmenopausal endometrium. Byrjalsen, I., Thormann, L., Meinecke, B., Riis, B.J., Christiansen, C. Obstetrics and gynecology. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Progesterone-associated endometrial protein--a constitutive marker of human erythroid precursors. Kämäräinen, M., Riittinen, L., Seppälä, M., Palotie, A., Andersson, L.C. Blood (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Uterine endocrinology and paracrinology: insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 and placental protein 14 revisited. Seppälä, M., Koistinen, R., Rutanen, E.M. Hum. Reprod. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. The effects of post-ovulatory administration of onapristone on the developmnent of a secretory endometrium. Cameron, S.T., Critchley, H.O., Buckley, C.H., Chard, T., Kelly, R.W., Baird, D.T. Hum. Reprod. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Maternal plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 and placental protein 14 in multifetal pregnancies before and after fetal reduction. Abbas, A., Johnson, M., Chard, T., Nicolaides, K.H. Hum. Reprod. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. The effect of Danazol on the circulating levels of 34K insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (PP12) and endometrial secretory protein PP14. Than, G., Seppälä, M., Julkunen, M., Szabo, D., Bodis, J., Szilagyi, A., Csaba, I. Hum. Reprod. (1987) [Pubmed]
  20. Negative regulation of T cell activation by placental protein 14 is mediated by the tyrosine phosphatase receptor CD45. Rachmilewitz, J., Borovsky, Z., Riely, G.J., Miller, R., Tykocinski, M.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. The ovary is not a major source of placental protein 14 (glycodelin). Borri, P., Noci, I., Fuzzi, B., Rice, A., Chard, T. Hum. Reprod. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Glycodelin A, not glycodelin S, is apoptotically active. Relevance of sialic acid modification. Mukhopadhyay, D., SundarRaj, S., Alok, A., Karande, A.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Gender-specific glycosylation of human glycodelin affects its contraceptive activity. Morris, H.R., Dell, A., Easton, R.L., Panico, M., Koistinen, H., Koistinen, R., Oehninger, S., Patankar, M.S., Seppala, M., Clark, G.F. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Molecular cloning of complementary DNAs for two human endometrial proteins and cellular localization of their messenger RNAs. Julkunen, M., Seppälä, M., Jänne, O.A. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Serum relaxin and the major endometrial secretory proteins in in-vitro fertilization and down-regulated hormone-supported and natural cycle frozen embryo transfer. Arthur, I.D., Anthony, F.W., Adams, S., Thomas, E.J. Hum. Reprod. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Progesterone-associated proteins PP12 and PP14 in the human endometrium. Rutanen, E.M., Koistinen, R., Seppälä, M., Julkunen, M., Suikkari, A.M., Huhtala, M.L. J. Steroid Biochem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  27. The measurement of CA 125 and placental protein 14 in uterine flushings in women with recurrent miscarriage; relation to endometrial morphology. Dalton, C.F., Laird, S.M., Serle, E., Saravelos, H., Warren, M.A., Li, T.C., Bolton, A.E. Hum. Reprod. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Differential regulation of Th1/Th2 cytokine responses by placental protein 14. Mishan-Eisenberg, G., Borovsky, Z., Weber, M.C., Gazit, R., Tykocinski, M.L., Rachmilewitz, J. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Relationships between the uterine environment and maternal plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 and placental protein 14 in early pregnancy. Wheeler, T., Chard, T., Anthony, F., Osmond, C. Hum. Reprod. (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. Complete amino acid sequence of human placental protein 14: a progesterone-regulated uterine protein homologous to beta-lactoglobulins. Julkunen, M., Seppälä, M., Jänne, O.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  31. De novo synthesis of placental protein-14 (PP14) and not PP12 by monolayer cultures of glandular epithelium of gestational endometrium. Fay, T.N., Lindenberg, S., Teisner, B., Westergaard, L.G., Westergaard, J.G., Grudzinskas, J.G. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1990) [Pubmed]
  32. alpha2-macroglobulin modulates the immunoregulatory function of the lipocalin placental protein 14. Riely, G.J., Rachmilewitz, J., Koo, P.H., Tykocinski, M.L. Biochem. J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Multiple forms of messenger ribonucleic acid encoding glycodelin in male genital tract. Koistinen, H., Koistinen, R., Kämäräinen, M., Salo, J., Seppälä, M. Lab. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
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