The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

PDCD1  -  programmed cell death 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CD279, PD-1, PD1, Programmed cell death protein 1, Protein PD-1, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of PDCD1


Psychiatry related information on PDCD1


High impact information on PDCD1


Chemical compound and disease context of PDCD1


Biological context of PDCD1


Anatomical context of PDCD1

  • The inhibitory receptor programmed death 1 (PD-1; also known as PDCD1), a negative regulator of activated T cells, is markedly upregulated on the surface of exhausted virus-specific CD8 T cells in mice [19].
  • OBJECTIVE: Programmed death-1 (PD-1) mediates a negative signal and introduces tolerance for lymphocytes [2].
  • Immunohistochemical analysis showed that PD-1 was expressed on infiltrating lymphocytes in salivary gland from 52% of SS patients, and PD-L1 was expressed on ductal and acinar epithelial cells from 68% of SS patients [2].
  • The program death 1 (PD-1) receptor and its ligands, PD-1 ligand (PD-L)1 and PD-L2, define a novel regulatory pathway with potential inhibitory effects on T, B, and monocyte responses [20].
  • Regulated compartmentalization of programmed cell death-1 discriminates CD4+CD25+ resting regulatory T cells from activated T cells [21].

Associations of PDCD1 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of PDCD1


Other interactions of PDCD1

  • CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates a substantial increase in expression of the negative regulator molecules PD-1 and CTLA-4 and the apoptotic signal molecules Fas and FasL in patients with primary SS compared with controls, which corresponded to the immunomorphologic pattern [28].
  • OBJECTIVE: Expression of the B7 homolog B7-H1 (PD1-Ligand) has been proposed to enable tumor cells to evade immune surveillance [29].
  • CTLA-4 and PD-1 are receptors that negatively regulate T-cell activation [16].
  • Under optimal conditions of stimulation, ICOS but not CD28 costimulation can be prevented by PD-1 engagement [20].
  • Blocking PD-1 reverted the inhibitory effect of PD-L2, demonstrating involvement of this pathway [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PDCD1


  1. The systemic lupus erythematosus-associated PDCD1 polymorphism PD1.3A in lupus nephritis. Prokunina, L., Gunnarsson, I., Sturfelt, G., Truedsson, L., Seligman, V.A., Olson, J.L., Seldin, M.F., Criswell, L.A., Alarcón-Riquelme, M.E. Arthritis Rheum. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Enhanced expression of programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD-L1 in salivary glands of patients with Sjögren's syndrome. Kobayashi, M., Kawano, S., Hatachi, S., Kurimoto, C., Okazaki, T., Iwai, Y., Honjo, T., Tanaka, Y., Minato, N., Komori, T., Maeda, S., Kumagai, S. J. Rheumatol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Decreased Risk for Myocardial Infarction and Lower Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Levels in Carriers of Variants of the PDCD1 Gene. Bennet, A.M., Alarc??n-Riquelme, M., Wiman, B., de Faire, U., Prokunina-Olsson, L. Hum. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is a marker of germinal center-associated T cells and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. Dorfman, D.M., Brown, J.A., Shahsafaei, A., Freeman, G.J. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. PD-1 ligands, negative regulators for activation of naive, memory, and recently activated human CD4+ T cells. Cai, G., Karni, A., Oliveira, E.M., Weiner, H.L., Hafler, D.A., Freeman, G.J. Cell. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Overexpression in neurons of human presenilin-1 or a presenilin-1 familial Alzheimer disease mutant does not enhance apoptosis. Bursztajn, S., DeSouza, R., McPhie, D.L., Berman, S.A., Shioi, J., Robakis, N.K., Neve, R.L. J. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Fusicoccin induces in plant cells a programmed cell death showing apoptotic features. Malerba, M., Cerana, R., Crosti, P. Protoplasma (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. A regulatory polymorphism in PDCD1 is associated with susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus in humans. Prokunina, L., Castillejo-López, C., Oberg, F., Gunnarsson, I., Berg, L., Magnusson, V., Brookes, A.J., Tentler, D., Kristjansdóttir, H., Gröndal, G., Bolstad, A.I., Svenungsson, E., Lundberg, I., Sturfelt, G., Jönssen, A., Truedsson, L., Lima, G., Alcocer-Varela, J., Jonsson, R., Gyllensten, U.B., Harley, J.B., Alarcón-Segovia, D., Steinsson, K., Alarcón-Riquelme, M.E. Nat. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Programmed cell death: apoptosis and oncogenesis. Williams, G.T. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Programmed cell death, mitochondria and the plant hypersensitive response. Lam, E., Kato, N., Lawton, M. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. NMR structure and mutagenesis of the Fas (APO-1/CD95) death domain. Huang, B., Eberstadt, M., Olejniczak, E.T., Meadows, R.P., Fesik, S.W. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Programmed cell death (apoptosis) in pancreatic cancers of hamsters after treatment with analogs of both luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin. Szende, B., Zalatnai, A., Schally, A.V. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  13. Programmed cell death during regression of the MCF-7 human breast cancer following estrogen ablation. Kyprianou, N., English, H.F., Davidson, N.E., Isaacs, J.T. Cancer Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Programmed cell death during regression of PC-82 human prostate cancer following androgen ablation. Kyprianou, N., English, H.F., Isaacs, J.T. Cancer Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. A new haplotype of PDCD1 is associated with rheumatoid arthritis in Hong Kong Chinese. Kong, E.K., Prokunina-Olsson, L., Wong, W.H., Lau, C.S., Chan, T.M., Alarcón-Riquelme, M., Lau, Y.L. Arthritis Rheum. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. CTLA-4 and PD-1 receptors inhibit T-cell activation by distinct mechanisms. Parry, R.V., Chemnitz, J.M., Frauwirth, K.A., Lanfranco, A.R., Braunstein, I., Kobayashi, S.V., Linsley, P.S., Thompson, C.B., Riley, J.L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Association of PDCD1 with susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus: evidence of population-specific effects. Ferreiros-Vidal, I., Gomez-Reino, J.J., Barros, F., Carracedo, A., Carreira, P., Gonzalez-Escribano, F., Liz, M., Martin, J., Ordi, J., Vicario, J.L., Gonzalez, A. Arthritis Rheum. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. No evidence of association between genetic variants of the PDCD1 ligands and SLE. Abelson, A.K., Johansson, C.M., Kozyrev, S.V., Kristjansdottir, H., Gunnarsson, I., Svenungsson, E., Jönsen, A., Lima, G., Scherbarth, H.R., Gamron, S., Allievi, A., Palatnik, S.A., Alvarellos, A., Paira, S., Graf, C., Guillerón, C., Catoggio, L.J., Prigione, C., Battagliotti, C.G., Berbotto, G.A., García, M.A., Perandones, C.E., Truedsson, L., Steinsson, K., Sturfelt, G., Pons-Estel, B., Alarcón-Riquelme, M.E. Genes Immun. (2007) [Pubmed]
  19. PD-1 expression on HIV-specific T cells is associated with T-cell exhaustion and disease progression. Day, C.L., Kaufmann, D.E., Kiepiela, P., Brown, J.A., Moodley, E.S., Reddy, S., Mackey, E.W., Miller, J.D., Leslie, A.J., DePierres, C., Mncube, Z., Duraiswamy, J., Zhu, B., Eichbaum, Q., Altfeld, M., Wherry, E.J., Coovadia, H.M., Goulder, P.J., Klenerman, P., Ahmed, R., Freeman, G.J., Walker, B.D. Nature (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Program death-1 engagement upon TCR activation has distinct effects on costimulation and cytokine-driven proliferation: attenuation of ICOS, IL-4, and IL-21, but not CD28, IL-7, and IL-15 responses. Bennett, F., Luxenberg, D., Ling, V., Wang, I.M., Marquette, K., Lowe, D., Khan, N., Veldman, G., Jacobs, K.A., Valge-Archer, V.E., Collins, M., Carreno, B.M. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Regulated compartmentalization of programmed cell death-1 discriminates CD4+CD25+ resting regulatory T cells from activated T cells. Raimondi, G., Shufesky, W.J., Tokita, D., Morelli, A.E., Thomson, A.W. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Mechanisms of action of antimalarials in inflammation: induction of apoptosis in human endothelial cells. Potvin, F., Petitclerc, E., Marceau, F., Poubelle, P.E. J. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. A protective role for programmed death 1 in progression of murine adriamycin nephropathy. Qin, X.H., Lee, V.W., Wang, Y.P., Zheng, G.P., Wang, Y., Alexander, S.I., Harris, D.C. Kidney Int. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Programmed cell death induced by ceramide. Obeid, L.M., Linardic, C.M., Karolak, L.A., Hannun, Y.A. Science (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Programmed cell death in castor bean endosperm is associated with the accumulation and release of a cysteine endopeptidase from ricinosomes. Schmid, M., Simpson, D., Gietl, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. New thiophene analogues of kenpaullone: synthesis and biological evaluation in breast cancer cells. Brault, L., Migianu, E., Néguesque, A., Battaglia, E., Bagrel, D., Kirsch, G. European journal of medicinal chemistry. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. EGF-induced programmed cell death of human mammary carcinoma MDA-MB-468 cells is preceded by activation AP-1. Schaerli, P., Jaggi, R. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Increased salivary gland tissue expression of Fas, Fas ligand, cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4, and programmed cell death 1 in primary Sjögren's syndrome. Bolstad, A.I., Eiken, H.G., Rosenlund, B., Alarcón-Riquelme, M.E., Jonsson, R. Arthritis Rheum. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. The role of leukemia-derived B7-H1 (PD-L1) in tumor-T-cell interactions in humans. Salih, H.R., Wintterle, S., Krusch, M., Kroner, A., Huang, Y.H., Chen, L., Wiendl, H. Exp. Hematol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. No evidence for dualism in function and receptors: PD-L2/B7-DC is an inhibitory regulator of human T cell activation. Pfistershammer, K., Klauser, C., Pickl, W.F., Stöckl, J., Leitner, J., Zlabinger, G., Majdic, O., Steinberger, P. Eur. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. PDCD1: a tissue-specific susceptibility locus for inherited inflammatory disorders. James, E.S., Harney, S., Wordsworth, B.P., Cookson, W.O., Davis, S.J., Moffatt, M.F. Genes Immun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. B7-h1-induced apoptosis as a mechanism of immune privilege of corneal allografts. Hori, J., Wang, M., Miyashita, M., Tanemoto, K., Takahashi, H., Takemori, T., Okumura, K., Yagita, H., Azuma, M. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities