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Gene Review

Cda  -  cytidine deaminase

Mus musculus

Synonyms: 2210401N16Rik, Cdd, Cytidine aminohydrolase, Cytidine deaminase
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Disease relevance of Cda


High impact information on Cda


Chemical compound and disease context of Cda

  • A recent report showing induction of DNA mutations in Escherichia coli by overexpression of AID, Apobec-1, and related members of the RNA-editing cytidine deaminase family suggested that they may directly modify deoxycytidine in DNA in mammalian cells (DNA-editing model) [8].
  • The ability to confer drug resistance to Ara-C through gene transfer of cytidine deaminase may have the potential as a selectable marker and for the protection of the bone marrow from the toxicity produced by this analog so as to increase its effectiveness in cancer chemotherapy [11].

Biological context of Cda


Anatomical context of Cda

  • Infection of mouse bone marrow cells with the dmDHFR-CD construct also showed high levels of resistance to MTX and ara-C in a CFU-GM assay [17].
  • Retrovirus-mediated expression of dmDHFR-CD in NIH 3T3 cells conferred significant resistance (10- to 12-fold) against MTX and ara-C, compared with mock- and single gene-infected cells and the level of resistance obtained was similar to that of cells expressing both CD and dmDHFR from a retroviral bicistronic vector [17].
  • CDD is found in serum and different tissues, with particularly high concentrations in polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) [4].
  • The new compounds failed to show significant activity against tumor cell lines in culture, L1210 cells in vivo, virus cytotoxicity in cell culture, or cytidine deaminase [18].
  • The growth-regulating property of CDD could be explained by depletion of deoxycytidine nucleotides necessary for DNA synthesis or by a direct effect of CDD binding to specific receptors on progenitor cells [19].

Associations of Cda with chemical compounds


Other interactions of Cda


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Cda

  • Retroviral transfer and long-term expression of human cytidine deaminase cDNA in hematopoietic cells following transplantation in mice [15].
  • Blood, marrow and spleen samples were obtained and analyzed for CD proviral DNA by PCR, CD activity by enzyme assay, and drug resistance to Ara-C by clonogenic assay [15].
  • This conclusion was further substantiated by gel filtration experiments demonstrating a molecular weight (MW) of approximately 50 kd, which corresponds to the MW previously published for CDD activity [19].
  • After administration of FdCyd plus GMP, the plasma levels of FdCyd, 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine, which is converted from FdCyd by cytidine deaminase, and FUra were 2-, 6-, and 7-fold higher, respectively, than those after FdCyd alone 30 min after treatment [27].
  • Comparative study of a novel nucleoside analogue (Troxatyl, troxacitabine, BCH-4556) and AraC against leukemic human tumor xenografts expressing high or low cytidine deaminase activity [28].


  1. A single amino acid of APOBEC3G controls its species-specific interaction with virion infectivity factor (Vif). Schröfelbauer, B., Chen, D., Landau, N.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Use of 5-trifluoromethyldeoxycytidine and tetrahydrouridine to circumvent catabolism and exploit high levels of cytidine deaminase in tumors to achieve DNA- and target-directed therapies. Mekras, J.A., Boothman, D.A., Greer, S.B. Cancer Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. Methotrexate and cytarabine inhibit progression of human lymphoma in NOD/SCID mice carrying a mutant dihydrofolate reductase and cytidine deaminase fusion gene. Budak-Alpdogan, T., Alpdogan, O., Banerjee, D., Wang, E., Moore, M.A., Bertino, J.R. Mol. Ther. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Bioactive cytidine deaminase, an inhibitor of granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming cells, is massively released in fulminant meningococcal sepsis. Bøyum, A., Tennfjord, V.A., Gran, C., Løvhaug, D., Oktedalen, O., Brandtzaeg, P. J. Infect. Dis. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Complementary function of the two catalytic domains of APOBEC3G. Navarro, F., Bollman, B., Chen, H., König, R., Yu, Q., Chiles, K., Landau, N.R. Virology (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Transcription-targeted DNA deamination by the AID antibody diversification enzyme. Chaudhuri, J., Tian, M., Khuong, C., Chua, K., Pinaud, E., Alt, F.W. Nature (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. The AID enzyme induces class switch recombination in fibroblasts. Okazaki, I.M., Kinoshita, K., Muramatsu, M., Yoshikawa, K., Honjo, T. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. RNA-editing cytidine deaminase Apobec-1 is unable to induce somatic hypermutation in mammalian cells. Eto, T., Kinoshita, K., Yoshikawa, K., Muramatsu, M., Honjo, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing protein induces hepatocellular carcinoma and dysplasia in transgenic animals. Yamanaka, S., Balestra, M.E., Ferrell, L.D., Fan, J., Arnold, K.S., Taylor, S., Taylor, J.M., Innerarity, T.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Metabolism and mechanism of action of 5-fluorodeoxycytidine. Newman, E.M., Santi, D.V. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  11. Transfection of murine fibroblast cells with human cytidine deaminase cDNA confers resistance to cytosine arabinoside. Momparler, R.L., Laliberté, J., Eliopoulos, N., Beauséjour, C., Cournoyer, D. Anticancer Drugs (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Purine metabolism in murine virus-induced erythroleukemic cells during differentiation in vitro. Reem, G.H., Friend, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1975) [Pubmed]
  13. Modulation of the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine by 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyluracil in leukemic mice. Chandrasekaran, B., Capizzi, R.L., Kute, T.E., Morgan, T., Dimling, J. Cancer Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Specific expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), a novel member of the RNA-editing deaminase family in germinal center B cells. Muramatsu, M., Sankaranand, V.S., Anant, S., Sugai, M., Kinoshita, K., Davidson, N.O., Honjo, T. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Retroviral transfer and long-term expression of human cytidine deaminase cDNA in hematopoietic cells following transplantation in mice. Eliopoulos, N., Bovenzi, V., Le, N.L., Momparler, L.F., Greenbaum, M., Létourneau, S., Cournoyer, D., Momparler, R.L. Gene Ther. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Coexpression of cytidine deaminase and mutant dihydrofolate reductase by a bicistronic retroviral vector confers resistance to cytosine arabinoside and methotrexate. Beauséjour, C.M., Le, N.L., Létourneau, S., Cournoyer, D., Momparler, R.L. Hum. Gene Ther. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Expression of a novel double-mutant dihydrofolate reductase-cytidine deaminase fusion gene confers resistance to both methotrexate and cytosine arabinoside. Sauerbrey, A., McPherson, J.P., Zhao, S.C., Banerjee, D., Bertino, J.R. Hum. Gene Ther. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Nucleosides of 1,4-thiazin-3-one and derivatives as tetrahedral intermediate analogues of enzymes in pyrimidine nucleoside metabolism. Marcus, T.E., Gundy, A., Levenson, C.H., Meyer, R.B. J. Med. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  19. Identification of cytidine deaminase as inhibitor of granulocyte-macrophage colony formation. Bøyum, A., Løvhaug, D., Seeberg, E., Nordlie, E.M. Exp. Hematol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Comparative studies of the cytostatic action and metabolism of 5-azacytidine and 5,6-dihydro-5-azacytidine. Voytek, P., Beisler, J.A., Abbasi, M.M., Wolpert-DeFilippes, M.K. Cancer Res. (1977) [Pubmed]
  21. N4-Behenoyl-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine as a potential new antitumor agent. Aoshima, M., Tsukagoshi, S., Sakurai, Y., Oh-ishi, J.I., Ishida, T. Cancer Res. (1977) [Pubmed]
  22. Protective, tumor-selective dual pathway activation of 5-fluoro-2'-deoxycytidine provided by tetrahydrouridine in mice bearing mammary adenocarcinoma-755. Boothman, D.A., Briggle, T.V., Greer, S. Cancer Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. The antilymphocytic activity of brequinar sodium and its potentiation by cytidine. Effects on lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production. Woo, J., Lemster, B., Tamura, K., Starzl, T.E., Thomson, A.W. Transplantation (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Analytical and pharmacokinetic studies with 5-chloro-2'-deoxycytidine. Hale, J.T., Bigelow, J.C., Mathews, L.A., McCormack, J.J. Biochem. Pharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Pyrimidine salvage pathways in Toxoplasma gondii. Iltzsch, M.H. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. A novel affinity chromatography method for the co-purification of deoxycytidine kinase and cytidine deaminase. Uchida, H., Morinaga, H., Misaki, T., Miyazaki, T., Uwajima, T., Obata, T., Endo, Y., Matsuda, A., Sasaki, T. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Elevation of plasma levels of fluorinated pyrimidines by guanosine 5'-monophosphate. Iigo, M., Yamaizumi, Z., Nishimura, S., Hoshi, A. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  28. Comparative study of a novel nucleoside analogue (Troxatyl, troxacitabine, BCH-4556) and AraC against leukemic human tumor xenografts expressing high or low cytidine deaminase activity. Gourdeau, H., Bibeau, L., Ouellet, F., Custeau, D., Bernier, L., Bowlin, T. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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