The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

TXNRD1  -  thioredoxin reductase 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: GRIM-12, GRIM12, Gene associated with retinoic and IFN-induced mortality 12 protein, Gene associated with retinoic and interferon-induced mortality 12 protein, KDRF, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of TXNRD1


High impact information on TXNRD1

  • An example of two related enzymes that catalyse similar reactions but possess different active sites is provided by comparing the structure of Escherichia coli thioredoxin reductase with glutathione reductase [4].
  • The mammalian thioredoxins are a family of small (approximately 12 kDa) redox proteins that undergo NADPH-dependent reduction by thioredoxin reductase and in turn reduce oxidized cysteine groups on proteins [5].
  • The chaperonin heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 and thioredoxin reductase were identified by mass spectrometry sequencing in CTF complexes purified from both human T cell and yeast [6].
  • The deficient ATP-dependent conjugate transport in canalicular membranes from TR- mutant rat hepatocytes was associated with a lack of amplification of one of the mrp cDNA fragments and with a selective loss of Mrp on immunoblots of canalicular membranes [7].
  • Reduction of thioredoxins in chloroplasts is catalyzed by an iron-sulfur disulfide enzyme, ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase, that receives photosynthetic electrons from ferredoxin, thereby providing a link between light and enzyme activity [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of TXNRD1


Biological context of TXNRD1


Anatomical context of TXNRD1


Associations of TXNRD1 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of TXNRD1

  • Human thioredoxin reductase contains the redox-active cysteines in the putative FAD binding domain and has a dimer interface domain not previously seen with prokaryote and lower eukaryote thioredoxin reductases [22].

Enzymatic interactions of TXNRD1


Regulatory relationships of TXNRD1


Other interactions of TXNRD1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TXNRD1


  1. Thioredoxin reductase 1 expression in colon cancer: discrepancy between in vitro and in vivo findings. Lechner, S., Müller-Ladner, U., Neumann, E., Spöttl, T., Schlottmann, K., Rüschoff, J., Schölmerich, J., Kullmann, F. Lab. Invest. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Hemolysate thioredoxin reductase and glutathione peroxidase activities correlate with serum selenium in a group of New Zealand men at high prostate cancer risk. Karunasinghe, N., Ferguson, L.R., Tuckey, J., Masters, J. J. Nutr. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase gene expression in human tumors and cell lines, and the effects of serum stimulation and hypoxia. Berggren, M., Gallegos, A., Gasdaska, J.R., Gasdaska, P.Y., Warneke, J., Powis, G. Anticancer Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Convergent evolution of similar function in two structurally divergent enzymes. Kuriyan, J., Krishna, T.S., Wong, L., Guenther, B., Pahler, A., Williams, C.H., Model, P. Nature (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Properties and biological activities of thioredoxins. Powis, G., Montfort, W.R. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. The cytosolic entry of diphtheria toxin catalytic domain requires a host cell cytosolic translocation factor complex. Ratts, R., Zeng, H., Berg, E.A., Blue, C., McComb, M.E., Costello, C.E., vanderSpek, J.C., Murphy, J.R. J. Cell Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Expression of the MRP gene-encoded conjugate export pump in liver and its selective absence from the canalicular membrane in transport-deficient mutant hepatocytes. Mayer, R., Kartenbeck, J., Büchler, M., Jedlitschky, G., Leier, I., Keppler, D. J. Cell Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Proteomics gives insight into the regulatory function of chloroplast thioredoxins. Balmer, Y., Koller, A., del Val, G., Manieri, W., Schürmann, P., Buchanan, B.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Heparin-binding properties of selenium-containing thioredoxin reductase from HeLa cells and human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Liu, S.Y., Stadtman, T.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Cell cycle inhibition of HTLV-I transformed T cell lines by retinoic acid: the possible therapeutic use of thioredoxin reductase inhibitors. U-Taniguchi, Y., Furuke, K., Masutani, H., Nakamura, H., Yodoi, J. Oncol. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. The mechanism of thioredoxin reductase from human placenta is similar to the mechanisms of lipoamide dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase and is distinct from the mechanism of thioredoxin reductase from Escherichia coli. Arscott, L.D., Gromer, S., Schirmer, R.H., Becker, K., Williams, C.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Enzymatic reduction of alloxan by thioredoxin and NADPH-thioredoxin reductase. Holmgren, A., Lyckeborg, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1980) [Pubmed]
  13. Isolation and characterization of thioredoxin from the cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. Gleason, F.K., Holmgren, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1981) [Pubmed]
  14. Evidence for intriguingly complex transcription of human thioredoxin reductase 1. Rundlöf, A.K., Janard, M., Miranda-Vizuete, A., Arnér, E.S. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Rapid induction of cell death by selenium-compromised thioredoxin reductase 1 but not by the fully active enzyme containing selenocysteine. Anestål, K., Arnér, E.S. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Possible involvement of thioredoxin reductase as well as thioredoxin in cellular sensitivity to cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II). Sasada, T., Nakamura, H., Ueda, S., Sato, N., Kitaoka, Y., Gon, Y., Takabayashi, A., Spyrou, G., Holmgren, A., Yodoi, J. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Transcriptional regulation of thioredoxin reductase 1 expression by cadmium in vascular endothelial cells: role of NF-E2-related factor-2. Sakurai, A., Nishimoto, M., Himeno, S., Imura, N., Tsujimoto, M., Kunimoto, M., Hara, S. J. Cell. Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Methylseleninate is a substrate rather than an inhibitor of mammalian thioredoxin reductase. Implications for the antitumor effects of selenium. Gromer, S., Gross, J.H. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. 1-Chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene is an irreversible inhibitor of human thioredoxin reductase. Loss of thioredoxin disulfide reductase activity is accompanied by a large increase in NADPH oxidase activity. Arnér, E.S., Björnstedt, M., Holmgren, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Mutational analysis of human thioredoxin reductase 1. Effects on p53-mediated gene expression and interferon and retinoic acid-induced cell death. Ma, X., Hu, J., Lindner, D.J., Kalvakolanu, D.V. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. An alternative splicing variant of the selenoprotein thioredoxin reductase is a modulator of estrogen signaling. Damdimopoulos, A.E., Miranda-Vizuete, A., Treuter, E., Gustafsson, J.A., Spyrou, G. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Cloning and sequencing of a human thioredoxin reductase. Gasdaska, P.Y., Gasdaska, J.R., Cochran, S., Powis, G. FEBS Lett. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Mechanism-based inactivation of thioredoxin reductase from Plasmodium falciparum by Mannich bases. Implication for cytotoxicity. Davioud-Charvet, E., McLeish, M.J., Veine, D.M., Giegel, D., Arscott, L.D., Andricopulo, A.D., Becker, K., Müller, S., Schirmer, R.H., Williams, C.H., Kenyon, G.L. Biochemistry (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Thioredoxin reductase regulates AP-1 activity as well as thioredoxin nuclear localization via active cysteines in response to ionizing radiation. Karimpour, S., Lou, J., Lin, L.L., Rene, L.M., Lagunas, L., Ma, X., Karra, S., Bradbury, C.M., Markovina, S., Goswami, P.C., Spitz, D.R., Hirota, K., Kalvakolanu, D.V., Yodoi, J., Gius, D. Oncogene (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. (2,2':6',2"-Terpyridine)platinum(II) complexes are irreversible inhibitors of Trypanosoma cruzi trypanothione reductase but not of human glutathione reductase. Bonse, S., Richards, J.M., Ross, S.A., Lowe, G., Krauth-Siegel, R.L. J. Med. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. A mutation in a thioredoxin reductase homolog suppresses p53-induced growth inhibition in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Casso, D., Beach, D. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  27. Expression of the thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductase system in the inflamed joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Maurice, M.M., Nakamura, H., Gringhuis, S., Okamoto, T., Yoshida, S., Kullmann, F., Lechner, S., van der Voort, E.A., Leow, A., Versendaal, J., Muller-Ladner, U., Yodoi, J., Tak, P.P., Breedveld, F.C., Verweij, C.L. Arthritis Rheum. (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Thioredoxin, thioredoxin reductase, and alpha-crystallin revive inactivated glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase in human aged and cataract lens extracts. Yan, H., Lou, M.F., Fernando, M.R., Harding, J.J. Mol. Vis. (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. Etomoxir-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells detected by differential gene expression is confirmed biochemically. Merrill, C.L., Ni, H., Yoon, L.W., Tirmenstein, M.A., Narayanan, P., Benavides, G.R., Easton, M.J., Creech, D.R., Hu, C.X., McFarland, D.C., Hahn, L.M., Thomas, H.C., Morgan, K.T. Toxicol. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Decreased enzyme activity of hepatic thioredoxin reductase and glutathione reductase in rabbits by prolonged exposure to inorganic arsenate. Nikaido, M., Pi, J., Kumagai, Y., Yamauchi, H., Taguchi, K., Horiguchi, S., Sun, Y., Sun, G., Shimojo, N. Environ. Toxicol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Effect of selenium on rat thioredoxin reductase activity: increase by supranutritional selenium and decrease by selenium deficiency. Berggren, M.M., Mangin, J.F., Gasdaka, J.R., Powis, G. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Human thioredoxin reductase gene localization to chromosomal position 12q23-q24.1 and mRNA distribution in human tissue. Gasdaska, J.R., Gasdaska, P.Y., Gallegos, A., Powis, G. Genomics (1996) [Pubmed]
  33. Thioredoxin secreted upon ultraviolet A irradiation modulates activities of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 in human dermal fibroblasts. Oh, J.H., Chung, A.S., Steinbrenner, H., Sies, H., Brenneisen, P. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (2004) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities