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Gene Review

ZYX  -  zyxin

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ESP-2, HED-2, Zyxin, Zyxin-2
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Disease relevance of ZYX


High impact information on ZYX

  • Here we define the biological activity of the LIM domain through studies of an adhesion plaque protein called zyxin that displays three C-terminal LIM domains [6].
  • The diverse array of binding partners for EVH1 domains, including cytoskeletal proteins such as zyxin, transmembrane guidance receptors such as Roundabout, and the T-cell signaling protein Fyb/SLAP, shows that these interactions are likely to be important in a number of cellular processes that require regulated actin filament assembly [7].
  • Nuclear targeting of zyxin induces resistance to cell death coincident with nuclear accumulation of activated Akt [8].
  • Nuclear accumulation of zyxin and activated Akt may represent a fundamental mechanism that facilitates nuclear-signal transduction and potentiates cell survival [8].
  • Thickening of actin stress fibers reflects a cellular adaptation to mechanical stress; this cytoskeletal reinforcement coincides with zyxin mobilization and is abrogated in zyxin-null cells [9].

Biological context of ZYX


Anatomical context of ZYX

  • The conformational state of Tes regulates its zyxin-dependent recruitment to focal adhesions [14].
  • The subcellular distribution, the biochemical properties, as well as microsequencing data revealed that porcine platelet p83 is related to chicken gizzard zyxin and most likely represents the mammalian equivalent of the chicken protein [15].
  • Likewise, neither microinjected, fluorescently labeled zyxin antibodies nor ectopically expressed GFP-zyxin were recruited to these latter sites in live cells, whereas both probes incorporated into focal adhesions and stress fibers [16].
  • Together, these data identify zyxin as an early target for signals leading to adhesion disassembly, but exclude its role in recruiting Ena/VASP proteins to the tips of lamellipodia and filopodia [16].
  • Zyxin is a versatile component of focal adhesions in eukaryotic cells [11].

Associations of ZYX with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of ZYX


Regulatory relationships of ZYX


Other interactions of ZYX


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ZYX


  1. Vaccinia locomotion in host cells: evidence for the universal involvement of actin-based motility sequences ABM-1 and ABM-2. Zeile, W.L., Condit, R.C., Lewis, J.I., Purich, D.L., Southwick, F.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Characterization of the interaction between zyxin and members of the Ena/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein family of proteins. Drees, B., Friederich, E., Fradelizi, J., Louvard, D., Beckerle, M.C., Golsteyn, R.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Overexpression of LASP-1 mediates migration and proliferation of human ovarian cancer cells and influences zyxin localisation. Grunewald, T.G., Kammerer, U., Winkler, C., Schindler, D., Sickmann, A., Honig, A., Butt, E. Br. J. Cancer (2007) [Pubmed]
  4. The actin cytoskeleton-associated protein zyxin acts as a tumor suppressor in Ewing tumor cells. Amsellem, V., Kryszke, M.H., Hervy, M., Subra, F., Athman, R., Leh, H., Brachet-Ducos, C., Auclair, C. Exp. Cell Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Silencing of LASP-1 influences zyxin localization, inhibits proliferation and reduces migration in breast cancer cells. Grunewald, T.G., Kammerer, U., Schulze, E., Schindler, D., Honig, A., Zimmer, M., Butt, E. Exp. Cell Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. The LIM domain is a modular protein-binding interface. Schmeichel, K.L., Beckerle, M.C. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Doing (F/L)PPPPs: EVH1 domains and their proline-rich partners in cell polarity and migration. Renfranz, P.J., Beckerle, M.C. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Atrial natriuretic peptide promotes cardiomyocyte survival by cGMP-dependent nuclear accumulation of zyxin and Akt. Kato, T., Muraski, J., Chen, Y., Tsujita, Y., Wall, J., Glembotski, C.C., Schaefer, E., Beckerle, M., Sussman, M.A. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Mechanical force mobilizes zyxin from focal adhesions to actin filaments and regulates cytoskeletal reinforcement. Yoshigi, M., Hoffman, L.M., Jensen, C.C., Yost, H.J., Beckerle, M.C. J. Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Zyxin, a regulator of actin filament assembly, targets the mitotic apparatus by interacting with h-warts/LATS1 tumor suppressor. Hirota, T., Morisaki, T., Nishiyama, Y., Marumoto, T., Tada, K., Hara, T., Masuko, N., Inagaki, M., Hatakeyama, K., Saya, H. J. Cell Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Zyxin interacts with the SH3 domains of the cytoskeletal proteins LIM-nebulette and Lasp-1. Li, B., Zhuang, L., Trueb, B. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Analysis of the alpha-actinin/zyxin interaction. Li, B., Trueb, B. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Regulation of human endothelial cell focal adhesion sites and migration by cGMP-dependent protein kinase I. Smolenski, A., Poller, W., Walter, U., Lohmann, S.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. The conformational state of Tes regulates its zyxin-dependent recruitment to focal adhesions. Garvalov, B.K., Higgins, T.E., Sutherland, J.D., Zettl, M., Scaplehorn, N., Köcher, T., Piddini, E., Griffiths, G., Way, M. J. Cell Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Identification, purification, and characterization of a zyxin-related protein that binds the focal adhesion and microfilament protein VASP (vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein). Reinhard, M., Jouvenal, K., Tripier, D., Walter, U. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Zyxin is not colocalized with vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) at lamellipodial tips and exhibits different dynamics to vinculin, paxillin, and VASP in focal adhesions. Rottner, K., Krause, M., Gimona, M., Small, J.V., Wehland, J. Mol. Biol. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. An interaction between zyxin and alpha-actinin. Crawford, A.W., Michelsen, J.W., Beckerle, M.C. J. Cell Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Targeting of zyxin to sites of actin membrane interaction and to the nucleus. Nix, D.A., Fradelizi, J., Bockholt, S., Menichi, B., Louvard, D., Friederich, E., Beckerle, M.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Molecular characterization of human zyxin. Macalma, T., Otte, J., Hensler, M.E., Bockholt, S.M., Louis, H.A., Kalff-Suske, M., Grzeschik, K.H., von der Ahe, D., Beckerle, M.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Zyxin redistributes without upregulation in migrating human keratinocytes during wound healing. Leccia, M.T., van der Gaag, E.J., Jalbert, N.L., Byers, H.R. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Mechanical forces facilitate actin polymerization at focal adhesions in a zyxin-dependent manner. Hirata, H., Tatsumi, H., Sokabe, M. J. Cell. Sci. (2008) [Pubmed]
  22. Noc2, a putative zinc finger protein involved in exocytosis in endocrine cells. Kotake, K., Ozaki, N., Mizuta, M., Sekiya, S., Inagaki, N., Seino, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. Members of the Zyxin family of LIM proteins interact with members of the p130Cas family of signal transducers. Yi, J., Kloeker, S., Jensen, C.C., Bockholt, S., Honda, H., Hirai, H., Beckerle, M.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. The tumor suppressor Scrib selectively interacts with specific members of the zyxin family of proteins. Petit, M.M., Crombez, K.R., Vervenne, H.B., Weyns, N., Van de Ven, W.J. FEBS Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Molecular mechanisms of CD99-induced caspase-independent cell death and cell-cell adhesion in Ewing's sarcoma cells: actin and zyxin as key intracellular mediators. Cerisano, V., Aalto, Y., Perdichizzi, S., Bernard, G., Manara, M.C., Benini, S., Cenacchi, G., Preda, P., Lattanzi, G., Nagy, B., Knuutila, S., Colombo, M.P., Bernard, A., Picci, P., Scotlandi, K. Oncogene (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Distinct roles of MLCK and ROCK in the regulation of membrane protrusions and focal adhesion dynamics during cell migration of fibroblasts. Totsukawa, G., Wu, Y., Sasaki, Y., Hartshorne, D.J., Yamakita, Y., Yamashiro, S., Matsumura, F. J. Cell Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. LPP, an actin cytoskeleton protein related to zyxin, harbors a nuclear export signal and transcriptional activation capacity. Petit, M.M., Fradelizi, J., Golsteyn, R.M., Ayoubi, T.A., Menichi, B., Louvard, D., Van de Ven, W.J., Friederich, E. Mol. Biol. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Molecular dissection of zyxin function reveals its involvement in cell motility. Drees, B.E., Andrews, K.M., Beckerle, M.C. J. Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Zyxin: zinc fingers at sites of cell adhesion. Beckerle, M.C. Bioessays (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Mechanical forces alter zyxin unbinding kinetics within focal adhesions of living cells. Lele, T.P., Pendse, J., Kumar, S., Salanga, M., Karavitis, J., Ingber, D.E. J. Cell. Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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