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Gene Review

Stmn2  -  stathmin 2

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Protein SCG10, Scg10, Scgn10, Stathmin-2, Superior cervical ganglion-10 protein
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Disease relevance of Stmn2

  • The SCG10-related gene family in the developing rat retina: persistent expression of SCLIP and stathmin in mature ganglion cell layer [1].
  • Administration of CPP 1 hr before tetanus completely blocked LTP induction and the increase of SCG10 mRNA levels [2].
  • We describe features of the regulation of a neural-specific gene, SCG10, which is induced by nerve growth factor (NGF) during the neuronal differentiation of the rat pheochromocytoma cell line PC12 [3].
  • To achieve neuron-targeted gene transfer, we have produced an adenovirus carrying the reporter lacZ gene driven by the SCG10 minimum promoter containing the neural-restrictive silencer element (NRSE), which element selectively represses the transcription of genes in non-neuronal cells [4].

High impact information on Stmn2


Biological context of Stmn2


Anatomical context of Stmn2

  • In situ hybridization revealed that GAP-43 and all of the SCG10-related family mRNAs were present in the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) at all stages of retinal development, and that stathmin mRNA was present in mitotic neuroblastic cells [1].
  • Cross-hybridizing mRNAs and antigenically related proteins are found in several nonneuronal cell lines that do not express SCG10 [6].
  • These results suggest that SCG10 may play a role in the maintenance of synaptic plasticity through a transient regulation of microtubule dynamics, which facilitates the structural remodeling of the presynaptic element during the consolidation period [10].
  • Previously, we found the expression of neuronal growth associated protein SCG10, which is involved in neurite outgrowth and neural regeneration, was up-regulated by LTP induction in the rat hippocampal Schaffer-collateral CA1 pathway [10].
  • Furthermore, RB3 mRNA is undetectable in PC12 cells, whereas SCG10 mRNA increases after treatment with nerve growth factor, inducing neuronal differentiation [11].

Associations of Stmn2 with chemical compounds

  • In particular, compared to the two other phosphorylated forms, SCG10 phosphorylated at S50 had a significantly smaller dissociation constant for the binding of the first tubulin heterodimer and larger association and dissociation rate constants for the binding of the second heterodimer [7].
  • Disassembly of labile microtubules by nocodazole caused a dispersal of the SCG10 staining into punctate structures, indicating that its subcellular localization is microtubule-dependent [12].
  • The proteins were like the full length SCG10 substrate for serine/threonine protein kinases, including MAP kinase, PKA, and p34cdc2 kinase [13].
  • Activators of PKC such as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) or 1-oleoyl 2-acetyl glycerol mimicked the stimulatory effect of NGF and bFGF on SCG10 mRNA levels [14].
  • NGF, FGF, and, to a lesser extent, phorbol esters induced SCG10, whereas EGF and dibutyryl cAMP did not [3].

Enzymatic interactions of Stmn2

  • c-Jun N-terminal kinase-3 (JNK3)/stress-activated protein kinase-beta (SAPKbeta) binds and phosphorylates the neuronal microtubule regulator SCG10 [15].

Other interactions of Stmn2

  • At a regional level, SCG10 and SCLIP appear generally distributed similarly except in a few areas [16].
  • In addition, we systemically injected the competitive NMDA receptor antagonist d,l-3[(+/-)-2-carboxypiperazine-4-yl]-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP) to determine whether the alteration of SCG10 expression depends on NMDA receptor activation or tetanus alone [2].
  • In the olfactory bulb of postnatal and adult rats, a moderate to strong SCG10 immunoreactivity was present in the olfactory nerve layer, whereas no labeling was detected in the glomerular layer [17].
  • Effect of nerve growth factor and fibroblast growth factor on SCG10 and c-fos expression and neurite outgrowth in protein kinase C-depleted PC12 cells [14].
  • The age-related loss of DAT and TH mRNA expressions was accompanied by diminished expression of mRNA for a neuronal growth-associated protein GAP-43, but not for SCG10 or alpha 1-tubulin [18].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Stmn2

  • The real-time RT-PCR showed that both SCG10 mRNA 1 and 2 kb forms were increased at the 3 h, but not at 1 or 24 h [10].
  • Here we studied the temporal expression pattern of SCG10 mRNA after LTP induction using permanently implanted electrodes in the same CA1 pathway [10].
  • The semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR and Northern blot experiments confirmed that SCG10 mRNA levels were elevated in tetanized rat hippocampi compared with those of sham controls that received only low-frequency stimulation [2].
  • Surface plasmon resonance studies revealed that the phosphorylation of SCG10 at these sites reduced the tubulin heterodimer binding, mainly due to a reduced rate of association [7].
  • Thus, in both PNS and CNS neurons, the transcription of SCG10, CAP-23, and GAP-43 mRNAs is coregulated following axotomy and during regeneration [19].


  1. The SCG10-related gene family in the developing rat retina: persistent expression of SCLIP and stathmin in mature ganglion cell layer. Nakazawa, T., Nakano, I., Furuyama, T., Morii, H., Tamai, M., Mori, N. Brain Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Identification of upregulated SCG10 mRNA expression associated with late-phase long-term potentiation in the rat hippocampal Schaffer-CA1 pathway in vivo. Peng, H., Derrick, B.E., Martinez, J.L. J. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. The induction of a neural-specific gene, SCG10, by nerve growth factor in PC12 cells is transcriptional, protein synthesis dependent, and glucocorticoid inhibitable. Stein, R., Orit, S., Anderson, D.J. Dev. Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  4. Neuron-targeted gene transfer by adenovirus carrying neural-restrictive silencer element. Miyaguchi, K., Maeda, Y., Kojima, T., Setoguchi, Y., Mori, N. Neuroreport (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. A cell type-preferred silencer element that controls the neural-specific expression of the SCG10 gene. Mori, N., Stein, R., Sigmund, O., Anderson, D.J. Neuron (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. The NGF-inducible SCG10 mRNA encodes a novel membrane-bound protein present in growth cones and abundant in developing neurons. Stein, R., Mori, N., Matthews, K., Lo, L.C., Anderson, D.J. Neuron (1988) [Pubmed]
  7. Role of Ser50 phosphorylation in SCG10 regulation of microtubule depolymerization. Togano, T., Kurachi, M., Watanabe, M., Grenningloh, G., Igarashi, M. J. Neurosci. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Perforant path lesion induces up-regulation of stathmin messenger RNA, but not SCG10 messenger RNA, in the adult rat hippocampus. Bräuer, A.U., Savaskan, N.E., Plaschke, M., Ninnemann, O., Nitsch, R. Neuroscience (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Differential localization of SCG10 and p19/stathmin messenger RNAs in adult rat brain indicates distinct roles for these growth-associated proteins. Himi, T., Okazaki, T., Wang, H., McNeill, T.H., Mori, N. Neuroscience (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Time-course study of SCG10 mRNA levels associated with LTP induction and maintenance in the rat Schaffer-CA1 pathway in vivo. Peng, H., Derrick, B.E., Martinez, J.L. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. The stathmin family -- molecular and biological characterization of novel mammalian proteins expressed in the nervous system. Ozon, S., Maucuer, A., Sobel, A. Eur. J. Biochem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Differential distribution of stathmin and SCG10 in developing neurons in culture. Di Paolo, G., Lutjens, R., Osen-Sand, A., Sobel, A., Catsicas, S., Grenningloh, G. J. Neurosci. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Expression, purification, and characterization of a highly soluble N-terminal-truncated form of the neuron-specific membrane-associated phosphoprotein SCG10. Antonsson, B., Montessuit, S., Di Paolo, G., Lutjens, R., Grenningloh, G. Protein Expr. Purif. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Effect of nerve growth factor and fibroblast growth factor on SCG10 and c-fos expression and neurite outgrowth in protein kinase C-depleted PC12 cells. Sigmund, O., Naor, Z., Anderson, D.J., Stein, R. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. c-Jun N-terminal kinase-3 (JNK3)/stress-activated protein kinase-beta (SAPKbeta) binds and phosphorylates the neuronal microtubule regulator SCG10. Neidhart, S., Antonsson, B., Gilliéron, C., Vilbois, F., Grenningloh, G., Arkinstall, S. FEBS Lett. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Differential, regional, and cellular expression of the stathmin family transcripts in the adult rat brain. Ozon, S., El Mestikawy, S., Sobel, A. J. Neurosci. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Expression of SCG10 and stathmin proteins in the rat olfactory system during development and axonal regeneration. Pellier-Monnin, V., Astic, L., Bichet, S., Riederer, B.M., Grenningloh, G. J. Comp. Neurol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Reduced expression of the molecular markers of dopaminergic neuronal atrophy in the aging rat brain. Himi, T., Cao, M., Mori, N. J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Transcriptional upregulation of SCG10 and CAP-23 is correlated with regeneration of the axons of peripheral and central neurons in vivo. Mason, M.R., Lieberman, A.R., Grenningloh, G., Anderson, P.N. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (2002) [Pubmed]
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