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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Visna

  • An open reading frame whose 5' end overlaps with the pol gene, but is unrelated to the env gene, has been observed in HTLV-III/LAV and visna virus, both cytopathic mammalian retroviruses [1].
  • Despite close homology between genetic sequences of HIV-I and -II, these two viruses seem to have as much biological disparity from each other as does visna virus from caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus [2].
  • The transcriptional activity of the CAEV and visna virus LTRs was measured by a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assay, and the activity of the visna virus LTR was generally higher in a variety of uninfected cell types [3].
  • Here, we demonstrate that the known functional organization of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Rev trans activator is shared by the distantly related visna virus Rev protein [4].
  • Genetic variation among lentiviruses: homology between visna virus and caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus is confined to the 5' gag-pol region and a small portion of the env gene [5].

High impact information on Visna


Chemical compound and disease context of Visna


Biological context of Visna


Anatomical context of Visna

  • Adenoviral vectors expressing the 216 bp TNF alpha antisense fragment, controlled by the CMV promoter or the Visna LTR, were both effective at suppressing LPS-induced TNF alpha secretion by primary human macrophages [19].
  • Of the ddN derivatives, 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (ddCyd) proved to be the most inhibitory to visna virus-induced syncytium formation (50% effective concentration, 0.02 microM) [20].
  • The new antiviral substance phosphonoformate (PFA) has been tested in a cell-free system for its effect on reverse transcriptases from an avian retrovirus (avian myeloblastosis virus, AMV) and from mammalian retroviruses (Rauscher leukaemia virus, RMuLV; bovine leukaemia virus; baboon endogenous virus; simian sarcoma virus; visna virus) [21].
  • Cultured cells transfected with a full-length clone of visna DNA produce infectious virus but visna DNA with mutations in rev does not [22].
  • Furthermore, the absence of this AP-4 sequence dramatically decreased the additive effect observed when U937 cells were both treated by phorbol ester and expressed the tat gene product, suggesting a high interdependence of the AP-1 and AP-4 sequences for the regulation of the transcription driven by the visna LTR [23].

Gene context of Visna

  • The visna virus Tat protein was also able to interact with covalently cross-linked Fos and Jun dimers [15].
  • 7. The CMV promoter and the Visna LTR were the most strongly expressed and were therefore used to drive the expression of TNF alpha antisense fragments [19].
  • After purification recombinant ovine IL-2 was functionally active as shown by its ability to support the proliferation of Con A-activated T cells and was capable of generating maedi visna virus-specific cytotoxic T cells from primed precursor cells [24].
  • Targeting of the visna virus tat protein to AP-1 sites: interactions with the bZIP domains of fos and jun in vitro and in vivo [15].
  • Subcellular localization of rev-gene product in visna virus-infected cells [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Visna


  1. A new HTLV-III/LAV protein encoded by a gene found in cytopathic retroviruses. Lee, T.H., Coligan, J.E., Allan, J.S., McLane, M.F., Groopman, J.E., Essex, M. Science (1986) [Pubmed]
  2. Lentivirus-host interactions: lessons from visna and caprine arthritis-encephalitis viruses. Narayan, O., Kennedy-Stoskopf, S., Zink, M.C. Ann. Neurol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  3. Nucleotide sequence and transcriptional activity of the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus long terminal repeat. Hess, J.L., Pyper, J.M., Clements, J.E. J. Virol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Conserved functional organization of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and visna virus Rev proteins. Tiley, L.S., Malim, M.H., Cullen, B.R. J. Virol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Genetic variation among lentiviruses: homology between visna virus and caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus is confined to the 5' gag-pol region and a small portion of the env gene. Pyper, J.M., Clements, J.E., Molineaux, S.M., Narayan, O. J. Virol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  6. Antigenic variation in visna virus. Scott, J.V., Stowring, L., Haase, A.T., Narayan, O., Vigne, R. Cell (1979) [Pubmed]
  7. Visna and myelin basic protein. Carnegie, P.R., Weise, M.J. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. Inhibitory effect of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine on visna virus infection in lambs: a model for in vivo testing of candidate anti-human immunodeficiency virus drugs. Thormar, H., Georgsson, G., Pálsson, P.A., Balzarini, J., Naesens, L., Torsteinsdóttir, S., De Clercq, E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Visna virus encodes a post-transcriptional regulator of viral structural gene expression. Tiley, L.S., Brown, P.H., Le, S.Y., Maizel, J.V., Clements, J.E., Cullen, B.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Phosphonoformate inhibition of visna virus replication. Sundquist, B., Larner, E. J. Virol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  11. Complexity and polyadenylic acid content of visna virus 60-70S RNA. Vigne, R., Brahic, M., Filippi, P., Tamalet, J. J. Virol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  12. The leucine domain of the visna virus Tat protein mediates targeting to an AP-1 site in the viral long terminal repeat. Carruth, L.M., Morse, B.A., Clements, J.E. J. Virol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Characterization of visna virus envelope neuraminic acid. August, M.J., Harter, D.H., Compans, R.W. J. Virol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  14. Visna virus Tat protein: a potent transcription factor with both activator and suppressor domains. Carruth, L.M., Hardwick, J.M., Morse, B.A., Clements, J.E. J. Virol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Targeting of the visna virus tat protein to AP-1 sites: interactions with the bZIP domains of fos and jun in vitro and in vivo. Morse, B.A., Carruth, L.M., Clements, J.E. J. Virol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. The visna virus genome: evidence for a hypervariable site in the env gene and sequence homology among lentivirus envelope proteins. Braun, M.J., Clements, J.E., Gonda, M.A. J. Virol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. Functional murine leukemia virus vectors pseudotyped with the visna virus envelope show expanded visna virus cell tropism. Bruett, L., Clements, J.E. J. Virol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Molecular mechanisms of visna virus Tat: identification of the targets for transcriptional activation and evidence for a post-transcriptional effect. Gdovin, S.L., Clements, J.E. Virology (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Efficacy of adenoviral TNF alpha antisense is enhanced by a macrophage specific promoter. Sidiropoulos, P., Liu, H., Mungre, S., Anderson, L., Thimmapaya, B., Pope, R.M. Gene Ther. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Inhibition of visna virus replication by 2',3'-dideoxynucleosides and acyclic nucleoside phosphonate analogs. Thormar, H., Balzarini, J., Holy, A., Jindrich, J., Rosenberg, I., Debyser, Z., Desmyter, J., De Clercq, E. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Phosphonoformate inhibits reverse transcriptase. Sundquist, B., Oberg, B. J. Gen. Virol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  22. The rev gene of visna virus is required for productive infection. Toohey, K.L., Haase, A.T. Virology (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. The visna transcriptional activator Tat: effects on the viral LTR and on cellular genes. Neuveut, C., Vigne, R., Clements, J.E., Sire, J. Virology (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Molecular cloning and expression of DNA encoding ovine interleukin 2. Bujdoso, R., Williamson, M., Roy, D., Hunt, P., Blacklaws, B., Sargan, D., McConnell, I. Cytokine (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Subcellular localization of rev-gene product in visna virus-infected cells. Mazarin, V., Gourdou, I., Querat, G., Sauze, N., Audoly, G., Vitu, C., Russo, P., Rousselot, C., Filippi, P., Vigne, R. Virology (1990) [Pubmed]
  26. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of visna virus polypeptides isolated by agarose gel chromatography. Lin, F.H. J. Virol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  27. Topographical rearrangements of visna virus envelope glycoprotein during antigenic drift. Stanley, J., Bhaduri, L.M., Narayan, O., Clements, J.E. J. Virol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  28. Inhibition of visna virus replication and cytopathic effect in sheep choroid plexus cell cultures by selected anti-HIV agents. Thormar, H., Balzarini, J., Debyser, Z., Witvrouw, M., Desmyter, J., De Clercq, E. Antiviral Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
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