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MeSH Review

Placebo Effect

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Disease relevance of Placebo Effect


Psychiatry related information on Placebo Effect

  • PURPOSE: A population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model accounting for placebo effect was used to relate nicotine concentration and enforced smoking cessation craving score measured by the Tiffany rating scale short form [6].
  • In each case, sequential replacement of drugs (Ritalin and Dexedrine) with placebos demonstrated placebo effects of the drugs; behavior therapy, alone and in combination with drugs, was effective in controlling hyperactive behaviors [7].
  • Future research also should explore the moderating influences of the environmental context and of individual difference factors on placebo effects of smoking and other nicotine intake [8].
  • Moreover, the study proved that the extent of the placebo effect in a population is inversely dependent on the level of neuroticism measured by Eysenck Personality Inventory, and directly dependent on the number of anginal attacks in the period before administration of the drug [9].

High impact information on Placebo Effect

  • This study indicates that the effectiveness of nicotine gum is not due to a placebo effect and that it is related to dose [10].
  • Other neurotransmitters or neuropeptides, however, are also likely to be involved in mediating the placebo effect (e.g. opioids in pain disorders, serotonin in depression) [11].
  • RESULTS: On the basis of net responses to m-chlorophenylpiperazine (placebo effects subtracted from drug effects), patients with SAD exhibited blunted prolactin responses and less sadness than normal controls in response to the drug [12].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Bright light therapy had a specific antidepressant effect beyond its placebo effect, but it took at least 3 weeks for a significant effect to develop [13].
  • DESIGN: Double-blind randomized comparison of MCPP (0.1 mg/kg, intravenously, administered over 20 minutes) and placebo effects in patients and healthy subjects [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of Placebo Effect


Biological context of Placebo Effect


Anatomical context of Placebo Effect


Associations of Placebo Effect with chemical compounds

  • Our findings indicate that the placebo effect in PD is powerful and is mediated through activation of the damaged nigrostriatal dopamine system [1].
  • Oxygen therapy during exercise in patients who are not hypoxemic at rest should be done only when benefits cannot be attributed to a placebo effect of O2 therapy [25].
  • The placebo effects associated with tacrine and placebo treatment were similar in magnitude and time course [26].
  • In all 10 patients followed over a long term, oral diltiazem caused persistent improvement in exercise performance at 12 to 20 weeks, without evidence of placebo effects [27].
  • By contrast, ketorolac conditioning together with expectation cues elicited a placebo effect that was blocked by naloxone only partially [28].

Gene context of Placebo Effect

  • Failure to demonstrate a relationship between GHRH dose and changes in growth velocity might be explained by the combination of a placebo effect, insufficient frequency of GHRH administration and heterogeneity of the population [29].
  • It was apparent that the effect determined after GH therapy in part was due to a placebo effect [30].
  • This course is remarkably better than that of other children with CF treated without Intralipid in Auckland in the same period, though a placebo effect cannot be discounted [31].
  • Two highly reliable scales, the Placebo Effect Scale (PES) and the Side Effect Scale (SES) were derived from the Placebo Test and served as dependent variables [32].
  • PURPOSE: To compare self-regulation of low-frequency EEG components (slow cortical potentials, SCPs) with other methods of seizure control for patients with drug-refractory partial epilepsy and to separate the real anticonvulsive effect from placebo effects [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Placebo Effect


  1. Expectation and dopamine release: mechanism of the placebo effect in Parkinson's disease. de la Fuente-Fernández, R., Ruth, T.J., Sossi, V., Schulzer, M., Calne, D.B., Stoessl, A.J. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Methodologic aspects of a population pharmacodynamic model for cognitive effects in Alzheimer patients treated with tacrine. Holford, N.H., Peace, K.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. High-dose intravenous pamidronate for metastatic bone pain. Purohit, O.P., Anthony, C., Radstone, C.R., Owen, J., Coleman, R.E. Br. J. Cancer (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Vitamin C, the placebo effect, and the common cold: a case study of how preconceptions influence the analysis of results. Hemilä, H. Journal of clinical epidemiology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Randomized double-blind study of pindolol in patients with stable angina pectoris. Harston, W.E., Friesinger, G.C. Am. Heart J. (1982) [Pubmed]
  6. Population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model of craving in an enforced smoking cessation population: indirect response and probabilistic modeling. Gomeni, R., Teneggi, V., Iavarone, L., Squassante, L., Bye, A. Pharm. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Sequential withdrawal of stimulant drugs and use of behavior therapy with two hyperactive boys. Stableford, W., Butz, R., Hasazi-, n.u.l.l., Leitenberg, H., Peyser, J. The American journal of orthopsychiatry. (1976) [Pubmed]
  8. Placebo effects of tobacco smoking and other nicotine intake. Perkins, K., Sayette, M., Conklin, C., Caggiula, A. Nicotine Tob. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. The methodological and clinical aspects of the placebo effect in angina pectoris. Janicki, A.G., Orzechowska-Juzwenko, K., Swiderska-Błońska, T. Cor et vasa. (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. Effect of nicotine chewing gum in combination with group counseling on the cessation of smoking. Tønnesen, P., Fryd, V., Hansen, M., Helsted, J., Gunnersen, A.B., Forchammer, H., Stockner, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. The placebo effect in Parkinson's disease. de la Fuente-Fernández, R., Stoessl, A.J. Trends Neurosci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Hormonal and subjective responses to intravenous m-chlorophenylpiperazine in women with seasonal affective disorder. Levitan, R.D., Kaplan, A.S., Brown, G.M., Vaccarino, F.J., Kennedy, S.H., Levitt, A.J., Joffe, R.T. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Bright light treatment of winter depression: a placebo-controlled trial. Eastman, C.I., Young, M.A., Fogg, L.F., Liu, L., Meaden, P.M. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. m-Chlorophenylpiperazine effects in neuroleptic-free schizophrenic patients. Evidence implicating serotonergic systems in the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Krystal, J.H., Seibyl, J.P., Price, L.H., Woods, S.W., Heninger, G.R., Aghajanian, G.K., Charney, D.S. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Placebo-associated improvements in motor function: comparison of subjective and objective sections of the UPDRS in early Parkinson's disease. Goetz, C.G., Leurgans, S., Raman, R. Mov. Disord. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Ménière's disease: lithium treatment (demonstration of placebo effect in a doubleblind cross-over trial). Thomsen, J., Bech, P., Prytz, S., Vendsborg, P., Zilstorff, K. Clinical otolaryngology and allied sciences. (1979) [Pubmed]
  17. Enhanced external counterpulsation for ischemic heart disease: what's behind the curtain? Bonetti, P.O., Holmes, D.R., Lerman, A., Barsness, G.W. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Bromazepam in generalized anxiety. Randomized, multi-practice comparisons with both chlorprothixene and placebo. Kragh-Sørensen, P., Holm, P., Fynboe, C., Schaumburg, E., Andersen, B., Bech, P., Pichard, J. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Inhalation of fenoterol (Berotec) by asthmatic children: A clinical comparison with salbutamol, orciprenaline and isoprenaline. Blackhall, M.I., Dauth, M., Mahoney, M., O'Donnell, S.R. Med. J. Aust. (1976) [Pubmed]
  20. Cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with right bundle branch block: analysis of pooled data from the MIRACLE and Contak CD trials. Egoavil, C.A., Ho, R.T., Greenspon, A.J., Pavri, B.B. Heart rhythm : the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Controversies in TMD. Goddard, G. Journal of the California Dental Association. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Placebo mechanisms and reward circuitry: clues from Parkinson's disease. de la Fuente-Fernández, R., Schulzer, M., Stoessl, A.J. Biol. Psychiatry (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Ultradian chronomodulation by melatonin of a Placebo effect upon human killer cell activity. Lissoni, P., Marelli, O., Mauri, R., Resentini, M., Franco, P., Esposti, D., Esposti, G., Fraschini, F., Halberg, F., Sothern, R.B. Chronobiologia. (1986) [Pubmed]
  24. The biochemical bases for reward. Implications for the placebo effect. De La Fuente-Fernández, R., Stoessl, A.J. Evaluation & the health professions. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Long-term oxygen therapy. Anthonisen, N.R. Ann. Intern. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  26. Results and validation of a population pharmacodynamic model for cognitive effects in Alzheimer patients treated with tacrine. Holford, N.H., Peace, K.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. Short- and long-term efficacy of high-dose oral diltiazem for angina due to coronary artery disease: a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind crossover study. Petru, M.A., Crawford, M.H., Sorensen, S.G., Chaudhuri, T.K., Levine, S., O'Rourke, R.A. Circulation (1983) [Pubmed]
  28. Neuropharmacological dissection of placebo analgesia: expectation-activated opioid systems versus conditioning-activated specific subsystems. Amanzio, M., Benedetti, F. J. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Treatment with growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) 1-44 in children with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency: a randomized double-blind dose-effect study. The GHRH European Multicenter Study (GEMS) Group. Lievre, M., Chatelain, P., Van Vliet, G., Olivier, M., Blanchard, J., Morre, M., Boissel, J.P. Fundamental & clinical pharmacology. (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. Quality of life in adults with growth hormone (GH) deficiency: response to treatment with recombinant human GH in a placebo-controlled 21-month trial. Burman, P., Broman, J.E., Hetta, J., Wiklund, I., Erfurth, E.M., Hagg, E., Karlsson, F.A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1995) [Pubmed]
  31. A therapeutic trial of fatty acid supplementation in cystic fibrosis. Elliott, R.B. Pediatrics (1976) [Pubmed]
  32. Correlates of placebo reaction in an outpatient population. Shapiro, A.K., Struening, E.L., Barten, H., Shapiro, E. Psychological medicine. (1975) [Pubmed]
  33. Modification of slow cortical potentials in patients with refractory epilepsy: a controlled outcome study. Kotchoubey, B., Strehl, U., Uhlmann, C., Holzapfel, S., König, M., Fröscher, W., Blankenhorn, V., Birbaumer, N. Epilepsia (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. Treating the substance-abusing suicidal patient. Cornelius, J.R., Salloum, I.M., Lynch, K., Clark, D.B., Mann, J.J. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  35. Transcutaneous nerve stimulation in rheumatoid arthritis. Kumar, V.N., Redford, J.B. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. (1982) [Pubmed]
  36. Placebo effects in developmental disabilities: implications for research and practice. Sandler, A. Mental retardation and developmental disabilities research reviews. (2005) [Pubmed]
  37. Clinical and circulatory effects of oral isosorbide dinitrate in patients with angina during exercise. Lauwers, P.L., Tackels, R. Acta cardiologica. (1975) [Pubmed]
  38. Endolymphatic mastoid shunt: a reevaluation of efficacy. Welling, D.B., Nagaraja, H.N. Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. (2000) [Pubmed]
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